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Substrate specificity determinants of human acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE) were identified by combination of molecular modeling and kinetic studies with enzymes mutated in residues Trp-86, Trp-286, Phe-295, Phe-297, Tyr-337, and Phe-338. The substitution of Trp-86 by alanine resulted in a 660-fold decrease in affinity for acetythiocholine but had no effect(More)
Amino acids located within and around the 'active site gorge' of human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were substituted. Replacement of W86 yielded inactive enzyme molecules, consistent with its proposed involvement in binding of the choline moiety in the active center. A decrease in affinity to propidium and a concomitant loss of substrate inhibition was(More)
Polymyxin B nonapeptide (PMBN), a cationic cyclic peptide derived by enzymatic processing from the naturally occurring peptide polymyxin B, is able to increase the permeability of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria toward hydrophobic antibiotics probably by binding to the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We have synthesized 11 cyclic analogues(More)
Bacillus anthracis (Ames strain) chromosome-derived open reading frames (ORFs), predicted to code for surface exposed or virulence related proteins, were selected as B. anthracis-specific vaccine candidates by a multistep computational screen of the entire draft chromosome sequence (February 2001 version, 460 contigs, The Institute for Genomic Research,(More)
The Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major inducer of sepsis. The natural cyclic peptide polymyxin B (PMB) is a potent antimicrobial agent, albeit highly toxic, by virtue of its capacity to neutralize the devastating effects of LPS. However, the exact mode of association between PMB and LPS is not clear. In this study, we have(More)
The role of N-glycosylation in the function of human acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE) was examined by site-directed mutagenesis (Asn to Gln substitution) of the three potential N-glycosylation sites Asn-265, Asn-350 and Asn-464. Analysis of HuAChE mutants, defective in a single or multiple N-glycosylation sites, by expression in transiently or stably(More)
Several highly attenuated spore-forming nontoxinogenic and nonencapsulated Bacillus anthracis vaccines differing in levels of expression of recombinant protective antigen (rPA) were constructed. Biochemical analyses (including electrospray mass spectroscopy and N terminus amino acid sequencing) as well as biological and immunological tests demonstrated that(More)
A genomic analysis of the Bacillus anthracis virulence plasmid pXO1, aimed at identifying potential vaccine candidates and virulence-related genes, was carried out. The 143 previously defined open reading frames (ORFs) (R. T. Okinaka, K. Cloud, O. Hampton, A. R. Hoffmaster, K. K. Hill, P. Keim, T. M. Koehler, G. Lamke, S. Kumano, J. Mahillon, D. Manter, Y.(More)
Polymyxin B nonapeptide (PMBN), a cationic cyclic peptide derived from the antibacterial peptide polymyxin B, is capable of specifically increasing the permeability of the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria toward hydrophobic antibiotics. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of the hydrophobic segment of PMBN (i.e., D-Phe(5)-Leu(6)) to(More)
An attenuated nontoxinogenic nonencapsulated Bacillus anthracis spore vaccine expressing high levels of recombinant mutant protective antigen (PA), which upon subcutaneous immunization provided protection against a lethal B. anthracis challenge, was found to have the potential to serve also as an oral vaccine. Guinea pigs immunized per os with the(More)