Socrates Litsios

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This article explores the control of rural malaria shortly before and after World War II. During this period rural malaria moved from being an almost impossible problem to control to one which many believed could be eradicated. However, instead of rural development serving as an operational and economic framework for malaria control, as some had advocated(More)
This account of the events leading up to the Alma-Ata Conference in September 1978 (covering the years 1970 to 1978) is based on the author's recollections and his recent research of World Health Organization documents. The author builds his story around four themes: why the Soviets, in particular, wanted the conference; why the new WHO director-general did(More)
Charles Dickens's adult life parallels the period when the movement for sanitary reform took root in England. Although he was not one of its leaders, he became in time one of its most outspoken advocates. This essay describes Dickens's growing involvement in the sanitary movement and looks at one of the most important ways he supported it--articles(More)
John Black Grant (1890-1962) was instrumental in getting China, India, and Puerto Rico to develop health systems that integrated preventive and curative care and oriented medical education to be supportive of such systems. As these remain priority goals for all countries today, knowledge of his achievements remains of relevance. This article brings his(More)
The primary health care approach was introduced to the World Health Organization (WHO) Executive Board in January 1975. In this article, I describe the changes that occurred within WHO leading up to the executive board meeting that made it possible for such a radical approach to health services to emerge when it did. I also describe the lesser-known(More)
Economic growth has brought with it substantial environmental damage. Nature has been abused and little consideration has been given to the consequences, among them the adverse effects on health. Healthy people are vital for local development that is both economically and ecologically sound. The health sector should be actively involved in the movement for(More)
Historically epidemiological services were intimately linked with malaria control, and both were conceived as an integral part of local public health services. The strategy of malaria eradication between 1956 and 1969 moved malaria activities away from the health services and led to a weakening of epidemiological capacities. The epidemiological requirements(More)
This paper grew out of a meeting organized in September 2014 in London on ‘Re-imagining malaria’. The focus of that meeting was on malaria today; only afterwards did the idea emerge that re-imagining the past might serve as a useful way for guiding present re-thinking. Sub-Saharan Africa is the logical place for such a re-examination for, as argued in this(More)
The schism between medicine and public health has deep historical roots. The Rockefeller Foundation's Clinical Epidemiology program, initiated in the late 1970s, was seen by Kerr White, its director, as the means to heal the schism. This article revisits the role that the Foundation played in creating that schism before reviewing post-World War II efforts(More)