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OBJECTIVES To carry out a prospective combined quantitative analysis of the associations between all cause mortality and ambient particulate matter and sulphur dioxide. DESIGN Analysis of time series data on daily number of deaths from all causes and concentrations of sulphur dioxide and particulate matter (measured as black smoke or particles smaller(More)
BACKGROUND Air pollution contributes to mortality and morbidity. We estimated the impact of outdoor (total) and traffic-related air pollution on public health in Austria, France, and Switzerland. Attributable cases of morbidity and mortality were estimated. METHODS Epidemiology-based exposure-response functions for a 10 microg/m3 increase in particulate(More)
Epidemiologic studies are crucial to the estimation of numbers of deaths attributable to air pollution. In this paper, the authors present a framework for distinguishing estimates of attributable cases based on time-series studies from those based on cohort studies, the latter being 5-10 times larger. The authors distinguish four categories of death(More)
We investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe. As part of a European project (Air Pollution and Health, a European Approach (APHEA)), we analysed data from the cities of Amsterdam, Barcelona, London, Milan, Paris and Rotterdam, using a standardized approach to data(More)
Short-term effects of air pollution on daily mortality in eight western and five central-eastern European countries have been reported previously, as part of the APHEA project. One intriguing finding was that the effects were lower in central-eastern European cities. The analysis used sinusoidal terms for seasonal control and polynomial terms for(More)
Temporal and spatial variations of convection in South Asia are analyzed using eight years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) data and NCEP reanalysis fields. To identify the most extreme convective features, three types of radar echo structures are defined: deep convective cores (contiguous 3D convective echo $40 dBZ(More)
INTRODUCTION The Aphekom project aimed to provide new, clear, and meaningful information on the health effects of air pollution in Europe. Among others, it assessed the health and monetary benefits of reducing short and long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and ozone in 25 European cities. METHOD Health impact assessments were performed using(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Results from several studies over the past five years have shown that the current levels of pollutants in Europe and North America have adverse short term effects on health. The APHEA project aims to quantifying these in Europe, using standardised methodology. The project protocol and analytical methodology are presented here. (More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To quantify the short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution in the Paris area. DESIGN Time series analysis of daily pollution levels using Poisson regression. SETTING Paris, 1987-92. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Air pollution was monitored by measurement of black smoke (BS) (15 monitoring stations), sulphur dioxide(More)
Within the framework of the APHEA2 (Air Pollution on Health: a European Approach) project, the effects of ambient particles on mortality among persons > or = 65 yrs were investigated. Daily measurements for particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 microm (PM10) and black smoke (BS), as well as the daily number of deaths among persons > or =(More)