Learn More
T-type Ca(2+) currents have been proposed to be involved in the genesis of spike-and-wave discharges, a sign of absence seizures, but direct evidence in vivo to support this hypothesis has been lacking. To address this question, we generated a null mutation of the alpha(1G) subunit of T-type Ca(2+) channels. The thalamocortical relay neurons of the(More)
Calcium influx through N-type calcium channels mediates synaptic transmission at numerous central synapses and transduces nociceptive information in the spinal dorsal horn. However, the precise role of N-type calcium channels in pain perception is not fully elucidated. To address this issue, we generated and analyzed knockout mice for alpha(1B,) the(More)
Pancreatic beta cells are the source of insulin, which directly lowers blood glucose levels in the body. Our analyses of alpha(1D) gene-knockout (alpha(1D)(-/-)) mice show that the L-type calcium channel, alpha(1D), is required for proper beta cell generation in the postnatal pancreas. Knockout mice were characteristically slightly smaller than their(More)
Protocadherins (PCDHs) consist of the largest subgroup of the cadherin superfamily, and most PCDHs are expressed dominantly in the CNS. Because PCDHs are involved in the homophilic cell-cell adhesion, PCDHs in the nervous system have been suggested to play roles in the formation and maintenance of the synaptic connections. Although many PCDHs (>50) are in(More)
BACKGROUND This national survey was undertaken to propose the classification of extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (NTCL) subtypes and to clarify a clinical heterogeneity. PATIENTS AND METHODS Two hundred and eighty patients newly diagnosed as NTCL were enrolled from 22 Korean medical centers. Two subsets were compared: one involving the upper(More)
OBJECTIVES This study was undertaken to measure the distance and the angle between the anterior part of nasal cavity and the natural ostium of the sphenoid sinus. The anatomical location of the natural ostium according to the direction of surgeon's operating view toward the anterior wall of the sphenoid sinus was also analyzed. STUDY DESIGN This study(More)
We investigated the extent to which phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and Rac, a member of the Rho family of small GTPases, are involved in the signaling cascade triggered by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha leading to activation of c-fos serum response element (SRE) and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) in Rat-2 fibroblasts. Inhibition of PI(More)
Twenty-one patients with tibial pilon fractures were treated with ring fixators and arthroscopy. There were 2 Type I, 14 Type II, and 5 Type III fractures using the Ruedi classification. In Ruedi Types I and II fractures, ring fixators were applied to the tibia and foot, and closed reduction was performed, monitoring the quality of the reduction with an(More)
Although nitric oxide (NO) induces neuronal cell death under some conditions, it also can prevent apoptosis resulting from growth factor withdrawal. We investigated the molecular mechanism by which NO protects undifferentiated and differentiated PC12 cells from trophic factor deprivation-induced apoptosis. PC12 cells underwent apoptotic death in association(More)
Oxidative stress plays a critical role in cardiac injuries during ischemia/reperfusion. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes cell survival in a number of cell types, but the effect of IGF-1 on the oxidative stress has not been elucidated in cardiac muscle cells. Therefore, we examined the role of IGF-1 signaling pathway in cell survival against(More)