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T-type Ca(2+) currents have been proposed to be involved in the genesis of spike-and-wave discharges, a sign of absence seizures, but direct evidence in vivo to support this hypothesis has been lacking. To address this question, we generated a null mutation of the alpha(1G) subunit of T-type Ca(2+) channels. The thalamocortical relay neurons of the(More)
Calcium influx through N-type calcium channels mediates synaptic transmission at numerous central synapses and transduces nociceptive information in the spinal dorsal horn. However, the precise role of N-type calcium channels in pain perception is not fully elucidated. To address this issue, we generated and analyzed knockout mice for alpha(1B,) the(More)
Pancreatic beta cells are the source of insulin, which directly lowers blood glucose levels in the body. Our analyses of alpha(1D) gene-knockout (alpha(1D)(-/-)) mice show that the L-type calcium channel, alpha(1D), is required for proper beta cell generation in the postnatal pancreas. Knockout mice were characteristically slightly smaller than their(More)
Mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLR) play an important role in both adaptive immunity and innate immunity. Genetic variations within TLR genes are known to be associated with a variety of inflammatory and infectious diseases. TLR9 is potentially associated with autoimmune diseases, because it participates in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to determine whether preoperative (18) F-FDG PET/CT is useful in assessing contralateral lymph node metastasis in the neck. DESIGN A retrospective review of medical records was performed. SETTING Patients treated at a single institute. PARTICIPANTS One hundred and fifty-seven patients whose pathology results(More)
Although nitric oxide (NO) induces neuronal cell death under some conditions, it also can prevent apoptosis resulting from growth factor withdrawal. We investigated the molecular mechanism by which NO protects undifferentiated and differentiated PC12 cells from trophic factor deprivation-induced apoptosis. PC12 cells underwent apoptotic death in association(More)
We have characterized the profile of membrane currents in an immortalized human neural stem cell line, HB1.F3 cells, using whole-cell patch clamp technique. Human neural stem cell line generated from primary cell cultures of embryonic human telencephalon using a replication-incompetent retroviral vector containing v-myc expresses nestin, a cell(More)
Protocadherins (PCDHs) consist of the largest subgroup of the cadherin superfamily, and most PCDHs are expressed dominantly in the CNS. Because PCDHs are involved in the homophilic cell-cell adhesion, PCDHs in the nervous system have been suggested to play roles in the formation and maintenance of the synaptic connections. Although many PCDHs (>50) are in(More)
We investigated the extent to which phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and Rac, a member of the Rho family of small GTPases, are involved in the signaling cascade triggered by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha leading to activation of c-fos serum response element (SRE) and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) in Rat-2 fibroblasts. Inhibition of PI(More)
Bacillus cereus KCTC 3674 excretes several kinds of extracellular proteases into the growth medium. Two proteases with molecular masses of approximately 36-kDa and 38-kDa, as shown by SDS-PAGE, were purified from the culture broth. The 38-kDa protease was purified from B. cereus cultivated at 37 degrees C, and the 36-kDa protease was obtained from the B.(More)