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Controlling the properties of materials by driving them out of equilibrium is an exciting prospect that has only recently begun to be explored. In this Letter we give a striking theoretical example of such materials design: a tunable gap in monolayer graphene is generated by exciting a particular optical phonon. We show that the system reaches a steady(More)
We show that quasiparticle excitations with irrational charge and irrational exchange statistics exist in tight-binding systems described, in the continuum approximation, by the Dirac equation in (2+1)-dimensional space and time. These excitations can be deconfined at zero temperature, but when they are, the charge rerationalizes to the value 1/2 and the(More)
We show that in a large class of physically interesting systems the mass-generation phenomenon can be understood in terms of topological structures, without requiring a detailed knowledge of the underlying dynamics. This is first demonstrated by showing that Schwinger's mechanism for mass generation relies on topological structures of a two-dimensional(More)
Claudio Chamon,1,2 Chang-Yu Hou,1 Roman Jackiw,2 Christopher Mudry,3 So-Young Pi,1 and Gordon Semenoff4 1Physics Department, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA 2Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA 3Condensed Matter Theory Group, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI,(More)
Mass-gap calculations in three-dimensional gauge theories are discussed. Also we present a Chern–Simons-like mass-generating mechanism which preserves parity and is realized non-perturbatively. ∗This work is supported in part by funds provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (D.O.E.) under contracts #DE-FC02-94ER40818 (RJ) and #DE-FG02-91ER40676 (SYP).(More)
Using the most general, gauge invariant and renormalizable Higgs potential which avoids domain walls, we study the possible phases that can appear at high temperatures in the minimal SU(5) grand unified theory. We emphasize the important role of the fundamental representation of Higgs fields for the phase structure at temperatures of 1014 GeV. Submitted to(More)
We propose a non-Abelian generalization of the Clebsch parameterization for a vector in three dimensions. The construction is based on a group-theoretical reduction of the Chern-Simons form on a symmetric space. The formalism is then used to give a canonical (symplectic) discussion of non-Abelian fluid mechanics, analogous to the way the Abelian Clebsch(More)
Article is made available in accordance with the publisher's policy and may be subject to US copyright law. Please refer to the publisher's site for terms of use. The MIT Faculty has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters. We examine the local conformal invariance (Weyl invariance) in tensor-scalar(More)
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