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The proto-oncogene KRAS is mutated in a wide array of human cancers, most of which are aggressive and respond poorly to standard therapies. Although the identification of specific oncogenes has led to the development of clinically effective, molecularly targeted therapies in some cases, KRAS has remained refractory to this approach. A complementary strategy(More)
During the evolution of metazoans and the rise of systemic hormonal regulation, the insulin-controlled class 1 phosphatidylinositol 3OH-kinase (PI3K) pathway was merged with the primordial amino acid-driven mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway to control the growth and development of the organism. Insulin regulates mTOR function through a recently(More)
To enable arrayed or pooled loss-of-function screens in a wide range of mammalian cell types, including primary and nondividing cells, we are developing lentiviral short hairpin RNA (shRNA) libraries targeting the human and murine genomes. The libraries currently contain 104,000 vectors, targeting each of 22,000 human and mouse genes with multiple(More)
The karyotypic chaos exhibited by human epithelial cancers complicates efforts to identify mutations critical for malignant transformation. Here we integrate complementary genomic approaches to identify human oncogenes. We show that activation of the ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways cooperate to transform human cells. Using a(More)
Myc is an oncoprotein transcription factor that plays a prominent role in cancer. Like many transcription factors, Myc is an unstable protein that is destroyed by ubiquitin (Ub)-mediated proteolysis. Here, we report that the oncoprotein and Ub ligase Skp2 regulates Myc ubiquitylation and stability. Because of the growing number of Ub ligases that function(More)
Oncogenic mutations in the serine/threonine kinase B-RAF (also known as BRAF) are found in 50-70% of malignant melanomas. Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that the B-RAF(V600E) mutation predicts a dependency on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling cascade in melanoma-an observation that has been validated by the success of RAF and(More)
Intratumor heterogeneity is a major clinical problem because tumor cell subtypes display variable sensitivity to therapeutics and may play different roles in progression. We previously characterized 2 cell populations in human breast tumors with distinct properties: CD44+CD24- cells that have stem cell-like characteristics, and CD44-CD24+ cells that(More)
Lineage-survival oncogenes are activated by somatic DNA alterations in cancers arising from the cell lineages in which these genes play a role in normal development. Here we show that a peak of genomic amplification on chromosome 3q26.33 found in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the lung and esophagus contains the transcription factor gene SOX2, which is(More)
Dysfunctional mTORC1 signaling is associated with a number of human pathologies owing to its central role in controlling cell growth, proliferation, and metabolism. Regulation of mTORC1 is achieved by the integration of multiple inputs, including those of mitogens, nutrients, and energy. It is thought that agents that increase the cellular AMP/ATP ratio,(More)
Dysregulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway occurs frequently in human cancer. PTEN tumor suppressor or PIK3CA oncogene mutations both direct PI3K-dependent tumorigenesis largely through activation of the AKT/PKB kinase. However, here we show through phosphoprotein profiling and functional genomic studies that many PIK3CA(More)