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Among a superfamily of myosin, class VI myosin moves actin filaments backwards. Here we show that myosin VI moves processively on actin filaments backwards with large ( approximately 36 nm) steps, nevertheless it has an extremely short neck domain. Myosin V also moves processively with large ( approximately 36 nm) steps and it is believed that myosin V(More)
Many biological motor molecules move within cells using stepsizes predictable from their structures. Myosin VI, however, has much larger and more broadly distributed stepsizes than those predicted from its short lever arms. We explain the discrepancy by monitoring Qdots and gold nanoparticles attached to the myosin-VI motor domains using high-sensitivity(More)
It has been puzzled that in spite of its single-headed structure, myosin-IX shows the typical character of processive motor in multi-molecule in vitro motility assay, because this cannot be explained by hand-over-hand mechanism of the two-headed processive myosins. Here, we show direct evidence of the processive movement of myosin-IX using two different(More)
Molecular motors such as kinesin, myosin, and F(1)-ATPase are responsible for many important cellular processes. These motor proteins exhibit nanometer-scale, stepwise movements on micro- to millisecond timescales. So far, methods developed to measure these small and fast movements with high spatial and temporal resolution require relatively complicated(More)
Myosin V is an actin-based processive molecular motor driven by the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis. Although the chemo-mechanical coupling in processive movement has been postulated by separate structural, mechanical and biochemical studies, no experiment has been able to directly test these conclusions. Therefore the relationship between ATP-turnover(More)
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) turnover drives various processive molecular motors and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) release is a principal transition in this cycle. Biochemical and single molecule mechanical studies have led to a model in which a slow ADP release step contributes to the processivity of myosin-V. To test the relationship between force(More)
The surface of solid glass supports for samples in optical microscopy and for biosensors needs to be protein-resistant. A coating of a poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (mPEG) on the surface of the glass is one promising method for preventing the nonspecific adsorption of proteins. In this study, we have developed a novel technique for achieving an(More)
Myosin VI is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-driven dimeric molecular motor that has dual function as a vesicle transporter and a cytoskeletal anchor. Recently, it was reported that myosin VI generates three types of steps by taking either a distant binding or adjacent binding state (noncanonical hand-over-hand step pathway). The adjacent binding state, in(More)
  • So Nishikawa
  • 2007
TIRFM (total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy) is a fast-growing imaging technique which is currently getting significant attention of scientific community. The great advantage of this type of microscopy is in its optical sectioning capability superior to other techniques, such as confocal microscopy. Better signal to noise ratio makes it(More)