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Prenatal exposure to alcohol has consistently been associated with adverse effects on neurodevelopment, which is collectively called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Increasing evidence suggest that prenatal exposure to alcohol increases the risk of developing attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-like behavior in human. In this study, we(More)
Although the role of α-synuclein aggregation on Parkinson's disease is relatively well known, the physiological role and the regulatory mechanism governing the expression of α-synuclein are unclear yet. We recently reported that α-synuclein is expressed and secreted from cultured astrocytes. In this study, we investigated the effect of valproic acid (VPA),(More)
A new family of cytokine IL-32 has been implicated in pro-inflammatory immune responses several human diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases and vasculitis. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-32 in the inflammatory activation of cultured rat primary astrocytes. Treatment of IL-32 increased ROS production and augmented(More)
It is increasingly evident that neuroinflammatory response is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. In this study, we examined whether alpha-synuclein, a major components of Lewy body that has been implicated in the modulation of neuroinflammation, regulates MMP-9 and tPA activity, which plays important roles in neurodegeneration as well as(More)
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is an endogenous inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) that acts as a neuromodulator in various neurophysiological and pathological conditions. Several researchers including us reported the induction of PAI-1 during inflammatory condition; however, the mechanism regulating PAI-1 induction is not yet clear.(More)
Despite the extensive use of propofol in general anesthetic procedures, the effects of propofol on glial cell were not completely understood. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rat primary astrocytes and BV2 microglial cell lines, co-treatment of propofol synergistically induced inflammatory activation as evidenced by the increased production of NO, ROS(More)
We investigated the effect of the cAMP system on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced changes in the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in rat primary astrocytes. LPS stimulation increased MMP-9 and decreased tPA activity in rat primary astrocytes. Co-treatment with a cAMP analog, dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP), or the(More)
Preconception exposure to EtOH through the paternal route may affect neurobehavioral and developmental features of offspring. This study investigates the effects of paternal exposure to EtOH before conception on the hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity behavior of male offspring in mice. Sire mice were treated with EtOH in a concentration range(More)
In-utero exposure to valproic acid (VPA) has been known as a potent inducer of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), not only in humans, but also in animals. In addition to the defects in communication and social interaction as well as repetitive behaviors, ASD patients usually suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) problems. However, the exact mechanism underlying(More)
Although originally known as a plasma serine protease involved in clot dissolution, tPA and its primary inhibitor, PAI-1, play crucial roles in synaptic reorganization and plasticity in the central nervous system. In contrast to the wide array of work conducted in neural cells, relatively little is known about the regulatory mechanism governing tPA/PAI-1(More)