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1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3), an active form of Vitamin D, is photosynthesized in the skin of vertebrates in response to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B). VD3 deficiency can cause health problems such as immune disease, metabolic disease, and bone disorders. It has also been demonstrated that VD3 is involved in reproductive functions. Female sex(More)
Vitamin D3 is a fat-soluble secosteroid responsible for enhancing intestinal absorption of calcium, iron, and other materials. Vitamin D3 deficiency, therefore, can cause health problems such as metabolic diseases, and bone disorder. Female sex hormones including estrogen and progesterone are biosynthesized mainly in the granulosa cells of ovary. In this(More)
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that alter the structure or function of the endocrine system. 4-Tert-octylphenol (OP) is one of the most representative EDCs and has estrogenic effects. In this study, we examined the effects of ethinyl estradiol (EE) and OP on the pituitary gland, placenta, and uterus of pregnant rats.(More)
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