Soňa Nevšímalová

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We explored the role of hypocretins in human narcolepsy through histopathology of six narcolepsy brains and mutation screening of Hcrt, Hcrtr1 and Hcrtr2 in 74 patients of various human leukocyte antigen and family history status. One Hcrt mutation, impairing peptide trafficking and processing, was found in a single case with early onset narcolepsy. In situ(More)
Hypocretins (orexins) are hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in sleep and energy homeostasis. Hypocretin mutations produce narcolepsy in animal models. In humans, narcolepsy is rarely due to hypocretin mutations, but this system is deficient in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain of a small number of patients. A recent study also indicates increased(More)
Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare, severe neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by recurrent hemiplegic episodes and distinct neurological manifestations. AHC is usually a sporadic disorder and has unknown etiology. We used exome sequencing of seven patients with AHC and their unaffected parents to identify de novo nonsynonymous(More)
Narcolepsy with cataplexy, characterized by sleepiness and rapid onset into REM sleep, affects 1 in 2,000 individuals. Narcolepsy was first shown to be tightly associated with HLA-DR2 (ref. 3) and later sublocalized to DQB1*0602 (ref. 4). Following studies in dogs and mice, a 95% loss of hypocretin-producing cells in postmortem hypothalami from narcoleptic(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate sleep macrostructure, sleep disorders incidence and daytime sleepiness in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affected children compared with controls. METHODS Thirty-one patients (26 boys, 5 girls, mean age 9.3±1.7, age range 6-12 years) with ADHD diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, without comorbid psychiatric or(More)
Narcolepsy is a chronic disease commonly diagnosed in middle adulthood. However, the first symptoms often appear in childhood and/or adolescence. Pediatric cases of narcolepsy are among the most often underrecognised and underdiagnosed diseases. This fact raises questions about the reasons for such diagnostic delay from the clinical point of view, and what(More)
Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is a neurological disorder characterized by episodes of hemiplegia, various non-epileptic paroxysmal events and global neurological impairment. Characterization of the evolution and outcome into adulthood has not been sufficiently investigated. The goal of this study was to elucidate the natural history of alternating(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the specificity of low CSF hypocretin-1 levels in narcolepsy and explore the potential role of hypocretins in other neurologic disorders. METHODS A method to measure hypocretin-1 in 100 microL of crude CSF sample was established and validated. CSF hypocretin-1 was measured in 42 narcolepsy patients (ages 16-70 years), 48 healthy(More)
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder with an age-dependent prevalence of up to 10% in the general population above 65 years of age. Affected individuals suffer from uncomfortable sensations and an urge to move in the lower limbs that occurs mainly in resting situations during the evening or at night. Moving the legs or walking leads to an(More)
A questionnaire survey has been made of the life effects of narcolepsy in 180 patients, 60 each from North American, Asian and European populations, with 180 similarly distributed age and sex matched controls. Life-effects were attributed by the patients to the primary symptoms of excessive daytime drowsiness, sleep attacks, cataplexy, vivid hypnagogic(More)