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1. Using synthetic proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR(2))-activating peptides (PAR(2)APs) corresponding to the tethered ligand domain of the extracellular N-terminus of PAR(2) to mimic the actions of activating proteinases and using primary cultures of calvarial osteoblasts derived from both wild-type (WT) and PAR(2)-null (KO) mice, we investigated the(More)
Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR(2)) is a G-protein coupled receptor expressed by osteoblasts and monocytes. PAR(2) is activated by a number of proteinases including coagulation factors and proteinases released by inflammatory cells. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of PAR(2) in skeletal growth and repair using wild type (WT) and(More)
Despite its prevalence, the molecular basis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remains poorly understood. Here, we identify the developmental transcription factor Grhl3 as a potent tumor suppressor of SCC in mice, and demonstrate that targeting of Grhl3 by a miR-21-dependent proto-oncogenic network underpins SCC in humans. Deletion of Grhl3 in adult epidermis(More)
The isthmic organiser located at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) is the crucial developmental signalling centre responsible for patterning mesencephalic and metencephalic regions of the vertebrate brain. Formation and maintenance of the MHB is characterised by a hierarchical program of gene expression initiated by fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8),(More)
BACKGROUND The developmental transcription factor Grainyhead-like 3 (GRHL3) plays a critical tumor suppressor role in the mammalian epidermis through direct regulation of PTEN and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. GRHL3 is highly expressed in all tissues derived from the surface ectoderm, including the oral cavity, raising a question about its potential(More)
Craniofacial development is a highly conserved process that requires complex interactions between neural crest cells (NCCs) and pharyngeal tissues derived from all three germ layers. Signals emanating from the pharyngeal endoderm drive differentiation of NCCs into craniofacial cartilage, and disruption of this process underpins several human craniofacial(More)
Protease-activated receptors (PARs) mediate cellular responses to a subset of extracellular proteases, including blood coagulation factors and proteases produced by inflammatory cells. Cells in bone, cartilage and muscle exhibit cell type-specific expression patterns and functional responses for the different PARs. Activators of PAR-1 include thrombin, and(More)
The skin barrier is critical for mammalian survival in the terrestrial environment, affording protection against fluid loss, microbes, toxins, and UV exposure. Many genes indispensable for barrier formation in the embryo have been identified, but loss of these genes in adult mice does not induce barrier regression. We describe a complex regulatory network(More)
The highly conserved Grainyhead-like (Grhl) family of transcription factors, comprising three members in vertebrates (Grhl1-3), play critical regulatory roles during embryonic development, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis. Although loss of Grhl function leads to multiple neural abnormalities in numerous animal models, a comprehensive analysis of Grhl(More)
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