Smita Krishnaswamy

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Soft errors are an increasingly serious problem for logic circuits. To estimate the effects of soft errors on such circuits, we develop a general computational framework based on probabilistic transfer matrices (PTMs). In particular, we apply them to evaluate circuit reliability in the presence of soft errors, which involves combining the PTMs of gates to(More)
New high-dimensional, single-cell technologies offer unprecedented resolution in the analysis of heterogeneous tissues. However, because these technologies can measure dozens of parameters simultaneously in individual cells, data interpretation can be challenging. Here we present viSNE, a tool that allows one to map high-dimensional cytometry data onto two(More)
We propose the probabilistic transfer matrix (PTM) framework to capture nondeterministic behavior in logic circuits. PTMs provide a concise description of both normal and faulty behavior, and are well-suited to reliability and error susceptibility calculations. A few simple composition rules based on connectivity can be used to recursively build larger PTMs(More)
The crystal structure of the binary complex tRNA(Asp)-aspartyl tRNA synthetase from yeast was solved with the use of multiple isomorphous replacement to 3 angstrom resolution. The dimeric synthetase, a member of class II aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (aaRS's) exhibits the characteristic signature motifs conserved in eight aaRS's. These three sequence motifs(More)
Cellular circuits sense the environment, process signals, and compute decisions using networks of interacting proteins. To model such a system, the abundance of each activated protein species can be described as a stochastic function of the abundance of other proteins. High-dimensional single-cell technologies, such as mass cytometry, offer an opportunity(More)
Soft errors, once only of concern in memories, are beginning to affect logic as well. Determining the soft error rate (SER) of a combinational circuit involves three main masking mechanisms: logic, timing and electrical. Most previous papers focus on logic and electrical masking. Here, we develop static and statistical analysis techniques to estimate timing(More)
Mass cytometry uses atomic mass spectrometry combined with isotopically pure reporter elements to currently measure as many as 40 parameters per single cell. As with any quantitative technology, there is a fundamental need for quality assurance and normalization protocols. In the case of mass cytometry, the signal variation over time due to changes in(More)
While circuit density and power efficiency increase with each major advance in IC technology, reliability with respect to soft errors tends to decrease. Current solutions to this problem such as TMR require high area and power overhead. In this work, soft-error reliability is improved with minimal area overhead by careful, localized circuit restructuring.(More)
Mass-tag cell barcoding (MCB) labels individual cell samples with unique combinatorial barcodes, after which they are pooled for processing and measurement as a single multiplexed sample. The MCB method eliminates variability between samples in antibody staining and instrument sensitivity, reduces antibody consumption and shortens instrument measurement(More)
We explore the use of signatures, i.e., partial truth tables generated via bit-parallel functional simulation, during soft error analysis and logic synthesis. We first present a signature-based CAD framework that incorporates tools for the logic-level analysis of soft error rate (x) and for signature-based design for reliability (SiDeR). We observe that the(More)