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Soft errors are an increasingly serious problem for logic circuits. To estimate the effects of soft errors on such circuits, we develop a general computational framework based on probabilistic transfer matrices (PTMs). In particular, we apply them to evaluate circuit reliability in the presence of soft errors, which involves combining the PTMs of gates to(More)
The mechanism of DNA ejection, viral assembly and evolution are related to the structure of bacteriophage phi X174. The F protein forms a T = 1 capsid whose major folding motif is the eight-stranded antiparallel beta barrel found in many other icosahedral viruses. Groups of 5 G proteins form 12 dominating spikes that enclose a hydrophilic channel containing(More)
The potential to exploit single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in advanced electronics represents a continuing, major source of interest in these materials. However, scalable integration of SWNTs into circuits is challenging because of difficulties in controlling the geometries, spatial positions, and electronic properties of individual tubes. We have(More)
While circuit density and power efficiency increase with each major advance in IC technology, reliability with respect to soft errors tends to decrease. Current solutions to this problem such as TMR require high area and power overhead. In this work, soft-error reliability is improved with minimal area overhead by careful, localized circuit restructuring.(More)
Cellular circuits sense the environment, process signals, and compute decisions using networks of interacting proteins. To model such a system, the abundance of each activated protein species can be described as a stochastic function of the abundance of other proteins. High-dimensional single-cell technologies, such as mass cytometry, offer an opportunity(More)
Operation of a carbon nanotube field effect transistor ͑FET͒ oscillator at a record frequency of 500 MHz is described. The FET was fabricated using a large parallel array of single-walled nanotubes grown by chemical vapor deposition on ST-quartz substrates. Matching of the gate capacitance with a series inductor enabled greater than unity net oscillator(More)
The crystal structure of the binary complex tRNA(Asp)-aspartyl tRNA synthetase from yeast was solved with the use of multiple isomorphous replacement to 3 angstrom resolution. The dimeric synthetase, a member of class II aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (aaRS's) exhibits the characteristic signature motifs conserved in eight aaRS's. These three sequence motifs(More)
We propose the probabilistic transfer matrix (PTM) framework to capture nondeterministic behavior in logic circuits. PTMs provide a concise description of both normal and faulty behavior, and are well-suited to reliability and error susceptibility calculations. A few simple composition rules based on connectivity can be used to recursively build larger PTMs(More)
Mass cytometry uses atomic mass spectrometry combined with isotopically pure reporter elements to currently measure as many as 40 parameters per single cell. As with any quantitative technology, there is a fundamental need for quality assurance and normalization protocols. In the case of mass cytometry, the signal variation over time due to changes in(More)
—We explore the use of signatures, i.e., partial truth tables generated via bit-parallel functional simulation, during soft error analysis and logic synthesis. We first present a signature-based CAD framework that incorporates tools for the logic-level Analysis of Soft Error Rate (AnSER) and for Signature-based Design for Reliability (SiDeR). We observe(More)