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Although electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) single-particle analysis has become an important tool for structural biology of large and flexible macro-molecular assemblies, the technique has not yet reached its full potential. Besides fundamental limits imposed by radiation damage, poor detectors and beam-induced sample movement have been shown to degrade(More)
The highly divergent ribosomes of human mitochondria (mitoribosomes) synthesize 13 essential proteins of oxidative phosphorylation complexes. We have determined the structure of the intact mitoribosome to 3.5 angstrom resolution by means of single-particle electron cryogenic microscopy. It reveals 80 extensively interconnected proteins, 36 of which are(More)
Mitochondria have specialized ribosomes that have diverged from their bacterial and cytoplasmic counterparts. We have solved the structure of the yeast mitoribosomal large subunit using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. The resolution of 3.2 angstroms enabled a nearly complete atomic model to be built de novo and refined, including 39 proteins, 13(More)
The γ-secretase complex, comprising presenilin 1 (PS1), PEN-2, APH-1 and nicastrin, is a membrane-embedded protease that controls a number of important cellular functions through substrate cleavage. Aberrant cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) results in aggregation of amyloid-β, which accumulates in the brain and consequently causes Alzheimer's(More)
Dysfunction of the intramembrane protease γ-secretase is thought to cause Alzheimer's disease, with most mutations derived from Alzheimer's disease mapping to the catalytic subunit presenilin 1 (PS1). Here we report an atomic structure of human γ-secretase at 3.4 Å resolution, determined by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. Mutations derived from(More)
Malaria inflicts an enormous burden on global human health. The emergence of parasite resistance to front-line drugs has prompted a renewed focus on the repositioning of clinically approved drugs as potential anti-malarial therapies. Antibiotics that inhibit protein translation are promising candidates for repositioning. We have solved the cryo-EM structure(More)
Human γ-secretase is an intra-membrane protease that cleaves many different substrates. Aberrant cleavage of Notch is implicated in cancer, while abnormalities in cutting amyloid precursor protein lead to Alzheimer's disease. Our previous cryo-EM structure of γ-secretase revealed considerable disorder in its catalytic subunit presenilin. Here, we describe(More)
Human mitochondrial ribosomes are highly divergent from all other known ribosomes and are specialized to exclusively translate membrane proteins. They are linked with hereditary mitochondrial diseases and are often the unintended targets of various clinically useful antibiotics. Using single-particle cryogenic electron microscopy, we have determined the(More)
The 26S proteasome is responsible for the selective, ATP-dependent degradation of polyubiquitinated cellular proteins. Removal of ubiquitin chains from targeted substrates at the proteasome is a prerequisite for substrate processing and is accomplished by Rpn11, a deubiquitinase within the 'lid' sub-complex. Prior to the lid's incorporation into the(More)