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We describe a collection of standardized image processing protocols for electron microscopy single-particle analysis using the XMIPP software package. These protocols allow performing the entire processing workflow starting from digitized micrographs up to the final refinement and evaluation of 3D models. A particular emphasis has been placed on the(More)
X-windows based microscopy image processing package (Xmipp) is a specialized suit of image processing programs, primarily aimed at obtaining the 3D reconstruction of biological specimens from large sets of projection images acquired by transmission electron microscopy. This public-domain software package was introduced to the electron microscopy field eight(More)
Although three-dimensional electron microscopy (3D-EM) permits structural characterization of macromolecular assemblies in distinct functional states, the inability to classify projections from structurally heterogeneous samples has severely limited its application. We present a maximum likelihood-based classification method that does not depend on prior(More)
A maximum-likelihood approach to multi-reference image refinement is presented. In contrast to conventional cross-correlation refinement, the new approach includes a formal description of the noise, implying that it is especially suited to cases with low signal-to-noise ratios. Application of this approach to a cryo-electron microscopy dataset revealed two(More)
The highly divergent ribosomes of human mitochondria (mitoribosomes) synthesize 13 essential proteins of oxidative phosphorylation complexes. We have determined the structure of the intact mitoribosome to 3.5 angstrom resolution by means of single-particle electron cryogenic microscopy. It reveals 80 extensively interconnected proteins, 36 of which are(More)
The γ-secretase complex, comprising presenilin 1 (PS1), PEN-2, APH-1 and nicastrin, is a membrane-embedded protease that controls a number of important cellular functions through substrate cleavage. Aberrant cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) results in aggregation of amyloid-β, which accumulates in the brain and consequently causes Alzheimer's(More)
MOTIVATION Maximum-likelihood (ML) image refinement is a promising candidate to improve attainable resolution limits in 3D-EM. However, its large CPU requirements may prohibit application to 3D-structure optimization. RESULTS We speeded up ML image refinement by reducing its search space over the alignment parameters. Application of this reduced-search(More)
Mitochondria have specialized ribosomes that have diverged from their bacterial and cytoplasmic counterparts. We have solved the structure of the yeast mitoribosomal large subunit using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. The resolution of 3.2 angstroms enabled a nearly complete atomic model to be built de novo and refined, including 39 proteins, 13(More)
Dysfunction of the intramembrane protease γ-secretase is thought to cause Alzheimer's disease, with most mutations derived from Alzheimer's disease mapping to the catalytic subunit presenilin 1 (PS1). Here we report an atomic structure of human γ-secretase at 3.4 Å resolution, determined by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. Mutations derived from(More)