We present a model for investigating the effect of spherical aberration on the electromagnetic field and the Poynting vector in the focal region of a high-aperture lens. The fields are obtained byâ€¦ (More)

Using the electromagnetic equivalent of the Kirchhoff diffraction integral, we investigate the effect of spherical aberration and defocus on the diffraction of Gaussian, uniform, and centrallyâ€¦ (More)

Physical review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, andâ€¦

2001

We calculate the field emitted by a pulsed point source above a planar interface. It is found that the observed power spectrum can differ significantly from the emitted spectrum. Also, the observedâ€¦ (More)

We study how a converging spherical wave gets distorted by a plane dielectric interface. The fields in the second medium are obtained by evaluating the m-theory diffraction integral on the interface.â€¦ (More)

Using an electromagnetic approach, we calculate the properties of a confocal fluorescence microscope. It is expected that the results will be more reliable than those obtained by conventional scalarâ€¦ (More)

Focusing light through an interface leads to an aberrated intensity distribution that is highly extended with a relatively low peak intensity. We present a method, using a well-chosen annularâ€¦ (More)

We study the problem of light focusing by a high-aperture lens through a planar interface between two media with different refractive indices. It is demonstrated how, by using annular illumination,â€¦ (More)