Siyao Guo

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We consider the problem of extracting entropy by sparse transformations, namely functions with a small number of overall input-output dependencies. In contrast to previous works, we seek extractors for essentially all the entropy without any assumption on the underlying distribution beyond a min-entropy requirement. We give two simple constructions of(More)
We show the following reductions from the learning with errors problem (LWE) to the learning with rounding problem (LWR): (1) Learning the secret and (2) distinguishing samples from random strings is at least as hard for LWR as it is for LWE for efficient algorithms if the number of samples is no larger than O(q/Bp), where q is the LWR modulus, p is the(More)
The study of monotonicity and negation complexity for Boolean functions has been prevalent in complexity theory as well as in computational learning theory, but little attention has been given to it in the cryptographic context. Recently, Goldreich and Izsak (2012) have initiated a study of whether cryptographic primitives can be monotone, and showed that(More)
Rational proofs, recently introduced by Azar and Micali (STOC 2012), are a variant of interactive proofs in which the prover is neither honest nor malicious, but rather rational. The advantage of rational proofs over their classical counterparts is that they allow for extremely low communication and verification time. Azar and Micali demonstrated their(More)
Pseudorandom functions (PRFs) play a fundamental role in symmetric-key cryptography. However, they are inherently complex and cannot be implemented in the class AC 0 (MOD 2). Weak pseudorandom functions (weak PRFs) do not suffer from this complexity limitation, yet they suffice for many cryptographic applications. We study the minimal complexity(More)
Bacterial persisters, usually slow-growing, non-replicating cells highly tolerant to antibiotics, play a crucial role contributing to the recalcitrance of chronic infections and treatment failure. Understanding the molecular mechanism of persister cells formation and maintenance would obviously inspire the discovery of new antibiotics. The significant(More)