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Comparison of two fully sequenced genomes of Buchnera aphidicola, the obligate endosymbionts of aphids, reveals the most extreme genome stability to date: no chromosome rearrangements or gene acquisitions have occurred in the past 50 to 70 million years, despite substantial sequence evolution and the inactivation and loss of individual genes. In contrast,(More)
The importance of host-specialization to speciation processes in obligate host-associated bacteria is well known, as is also the ability of recombination to generate cohesion in bacterial populations. However, whether divergent strains of highly recombining intracellular bacteria, such as Wolbachia, can maintain their genetic distinctness when infecting the(More)
UNLABELLED The amount of gene and genome data obtained by next-generation sequencing technologies generates a need for comparative visualization tools. Complementing existing software for comparison and exploration of genomics data, genoPlotR automatically creates publication-grade linear maps of gene and genomes, in a highly automatic, flexible and(More)
We have studied the relative contribution of inversions, transpositions, deletions, and nucleotide substitutions to the evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae. The minimal number of rearrangement events required for converting the gene order structure of one genome into that of the other was estimated to 59 +/- 6 events, including 13%(More)
Ankyrin repeat domain-encoding genes are common in the eukaryotic and viral domains of life, but they are rare in bacteria, the exception being a few obligate or facultative intracellular Proteobacteria species. Despite having a reduced genome, the arthropod strains of the alphaproteobacterium Wolbachia contain an unusually high number of ankyrin repeat(More)
Gene transfer agents (GTAs) randomly transfer short fragments of a bacterial genome. A novel putative GTA was recently discovered in the mouse-infecting bacterium Bartonella grahamii. Although GTAs are widespread in phylogenetically diverse bacteria, their role in evolution is largely unknown. Here, we present a comparative analysis of 16 Bartonella genomes(More)
The effects of cholecystokinin (CCK) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on ocular blood flow were studied in monkeys using the labelled microsphere method. Intracameral administration of 800 pmole CGRP increased the blood flow significantly in the conjunctiva, ciliary body and sclera. There was no significant change in the choroid and retina. CCK-33(More)
We propose a scheme for the origin of mitochondria based on phylogenetic reconstructions with more than 400 yeast nuclear genes that encode mitochondrial proteins. Half of the yeast mitochondrial proteins have no discernable bacterial homologues, while one-tenth are unequivocally of alpha-proteobacterial origin. These data suggest that the majority of genes(More)
Reverse engineering algorithms (REAs) aim at using gene expression data to reconstruct interactions in regulatory genetic networks. This may help to understand the basis of gene regulation, the core task of functional genomics. Collecting data for a number of environmental conditions is necessary to reengineer even the smallest regulatory networks with(More)
Several attempts have been made to identify the minimal set of genes that is required for life using computational approaches or studies of deletion mutants. These experiments resemble those already performed by nature; a few hundred million years ago an ancestor of Escherichia coli was domesticated by aphids, which resulted in the elimination of 70-75% of(More)