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1. Several selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are inhibitors of the genetically polymorphic drug metabolizing enzyme, CYP2D6. We studied the interaction of venlafaxine, a new SSRI, with CYP2D6 in human liver microsomes. 2. Venlafaxine was a less potent inhibitor of this enzyme activity in vitro than other SSRIs tested. The average apparent Ki values(More)
The contribution of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) to the formation of hydrocodone's active metabolite, hydromorphone, was examined in vitro and in vivo. Human liver microsomes prepared from an individual homozygous for the D6-B mutation of the CYP2D6 gene catalyzed this reaction at a negligible rate. Urinary metabolic ratios of hydrocodone/hydromorphone were(More)
Potent inhibition of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) in human liver microsomes by fluoxetine and its major metabolite norfluoxetine was confirmed (apparent inhibition constant values, 0.2 mumol/L). Several other serotonergic agents were also found to be competitive inhibitors of this genetically polymorphic enzyme. The O-demethylation ratio of dextromethorphan(More)
One metabolite of haloperidol present in plasma is "reduced haloperidol." This study demonstrates that human red blood cells are capable of converting haloperidol to reduced haloperidol in vitro. The reductase involved requires NADPH, as does haloperidol (ketone) reductase in human liver cytosol.
A gas chromatographic-mass fragmentographic (GC-MF) procedure is described for the simultaneous quantitation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (DHPG) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG) in brain tissue and plasma. DHPG and MHPG were assayed as their respective acetyl-trifluoroacyl esters, using [2H2]DHPG and [2H3]MHPG as internal(More)
Enzymatic conversion of hydrocodone to hydromorphone is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 2D6, which is inactive in about 7% of Caucasians [poor metabolizers (PMs)] and can be inhibited by quinidine pretreatment in the remainder [extensive metabolizers (EMs)]. If hydromorphone, having a substantially higher mu-receptor affinity than hydrocodone, contributes(More)
This in vitro study using human liver enzymes was undertaken in order to compare the mechanism of metabolic reduction of timiperone, a potent butyrophenone neuroleptic, with that of haloperidol. Conversion of timiperone to reduced timiperone in liver cytosol was confirmed. The carbonyl reductase inhibitors (menadione IC50 5-18 microM; ethacrynic acid IC50(More)
Loxapine, its N-demethylated metabolite amoxapine, and their 7- and 8-hydroxy metabolites were determined simultaneously in plasma by a simple two-step extraction procedure followed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Baseline separation was achieved by a 5-microns Spherisorb C6 column. The mobile phase consisted of 5 mM phosphate buffer (with 14 mM(More)
We measured plasma concentrations of haloperidol (HAL) and its metabolite, reduced haloperidol (RHAL), by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 45 Japanese psychiatric patients receiving HAL. Plasma levels of HAL had a highly positive correlation with daily dose per body weight. Plasma RHAL/HAL ratios had also a dose-dependent relationship, but(More)