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Cancers arise owing to the accumulation of mutations in critical genes that alter normal programmes of cell proliferation, differentiation and death. As the first stage of a systematic genome-wide screen for these genes, we have prioritized for analysis signalling pathways in which at least one gene is mutated in human cancer. The RAS RAF MEK ERK MAP kinase(More)
CONTEXT MicroRNAs have potential as diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets in cancer. No study has evaluated the association between microRNA expression patterns and colon cancer prognosis or therapeutic outcome. OBJECTIVE To identify microRNA expression patterns associated with colon adenocarcinomas, prognosis, or therapeutic outcome. DESIGN,(More)
Cancers arise owing to mutations in a subset of genes that confer growth advantage. The availability of the human genome sequence led us to propose that systematic resequencing of cancer genomes for mutations would lead to the discovery of many additional cancer genes. Here we report more than 1,000 somatic mutations found in 274 megabases (Mb) of DNA(More)
CONTEXT Although chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastric cancer, the effect of H pylori treatment on prevention of gastric cancer development in chronic carriers is unknown. OBJECTIVE To determine whether treatment of H pylori infection reduces the incidence of gastric cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective,(More)
Activation of the RAS/RAF/extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway by RAS mutations is commonly found in human cancers. Recently, we reported that mutation of BRAF provides an alternative route for activation of this signaling pathway and can be(More)
Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disease with diverse molecular and histological subtypes. We performed whole-genome sequencing in 100 tumor-normal pairs, along with DNA copy number, gene expression and methylation profiling, for integrative genomic analysis. We found subtype-specific genetic and epigenetic perturbations and unique mutational signatures.(More)
Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disease with multiple environmental etiologies and alternative pathways of carcinogenesis. Beyond mutations in TP53, alterations in other genes or pathways account for only small subsets of the disease. We performed exome sequencing of 22 gastric cancer samples and identified previously unreported mutated genes and pathway(More)
Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of the most common cancers in Asian countries including China. Although its incidence rates in the West are lower than that in Asia, gastric cancer is still a major health problem worldwide, being second only to lung cancers in the number of deaths it causes. Helicobacter pylori infection has been identified as the major(More)
Epimutations in the germline, such as methylation of the MLH1 gene, may contribute to hereditary cancer syndrome in human, but their transmission to offspring has never been documented. Here we report a family with inheritance, in three successive generations, of germline allele-specific and mosaic hypermethylation of the MSH2 gene, without evidence of DNA(More)
Somatically acquired epigenetic changes are present in many cancers. Epigenetic regulation is maintained via post-translational modifications of core histones. Here, we describe inactivating somatic mutations in the histone lysine demethylase gene UTX, pointing to histone H3 lysine methylation deregulation in multiple tumor types. UTX reintroduction into(More)