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The contribution of astrocytes to the pathophysiology of AD (Alzheimer's disease) and the molecular and signalling mechanisms that potentially underlie them are still very poorly understood. However, there is mounting evidence that calcium dysregulation in astrocytes may be playing a key role. Intercellular calcium waves in astrocyte networks in vitro can(More)
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are potential therapeutic agents against Bacillus anthracis toxins, since there is no current treatment to counteract the detrimental effects of toxemia. In hopes of isolating new protective MAbs to the toxin component lethal factor (LF), we used a strain of mice (C57BL/6) that had not been used in previous studies, generating(More)
The effector activity of antibodies is dependent on engagement with Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) and activation of the associated intracellular signaling pathways. Preclinical evaluation of therapeutic humanized or chimeric mAbs to study the interactions of their Fc regions with FcγRs is hampered by substantial structural and functional FcγR diversity among(More)
Galactoxylomannan (GalXM) is a complex polysaccharide produced by the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans that mediates profound immunological derangements in murine models. GalXM is essentially non-immunogenic and produces immune paralysis in mice. Previous studies have attempted to enhance immunogenicity by conjugating GalXM to a protein(More)
One important function of humoral immunity is toxin neutralization. The current view posits that neutralization results from antibody-mediated interference with the binding of toxins to their targets, a phenomenon viewed as dependent only on antibody specificity. To investigate the role of antibody constant region function in toxin neutralization, we(More)
Prior studies have established that the Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide component galactoxylomannan (GalXM) manifests serotype-related structural differences that translate into antigenic differences. We analyzed GalXM from acapsular serotype A and D strains by carbohydrate analysis and static and dynamic light scattering to determine mass,(More)
The capsular polysaccharides of Cryptococcus neoformans have historically been divided into three components namely, glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), galactoxylomannan (GalXM), and mannoprotein (MP) but their relative spatial-geographical relationship in the capsule is unknown.  To explore this problem would require the capacity for visualizing these components(More)
Antibody therapy remains the only effective treatment for toxin-mediated diseases. The development of hybridoma technology has allowed the isolation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with high specificity and defined properties, and numerous mAbs have been purified and characterized for their protective efficacy against different toxins. This review(More)
Previously, we reported that Galactoxylomannan (GalXM) activates the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways through an interaction with the glycoreceptors on T cells. In this study we establish the role of the glycoreceptor CD45 in GalXM-induced T cell apoptosis, using CD45(+/+) and CD45(-/-) cell lines, derived from BW5147 murine T cell lymphoma. Our(More)
Retinal Müller glial cells, in addition to providing homeostatic support to retinal neurons, have been shown to engage in modulation of neuronal activity and regulate vasomotor responses in the retina, among other functions. Calcium-mediated signaling in Müller cells has been implicated to play a significant role in the intracellular and intercellular(More)