Siu-Kei Chow

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The contribution of astrocytes to the pathophysiology of AD (Alzheimer's disease) and the molecular and signalling mechanisms that potentially underlie them are still very poorly understood. However, there is mounting evidence that calcium dysregulation in astrocytes may be playing a key role. Intercellular calcium waves in astrocyte networks in vitro can(More)
One important function of humoral immunity is toxin neutralization. The current view posits that neutralization results from antibody-mediated interference with the binding of toxins to their targets, a phenomenon viewed as dependent only on antibody specificity. To investigate the role of antibody constant region function in toxin neutralization, we(More)
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are potential therapeutic agents against Bacillus anthracis toxins, since there is no current treatment to counteract the detrimental effects of toxemia. In hopes of isolating new protective MAbs to the toxin component lethal factor (LF), we used a strain of mice (C57BL/6) that had not been used in previous studies, generating(More)
The capsular polysaccharides of Cryptococcus neoformans have historically been divided into three components namely, glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), galactoxylomannan (GalXM), and mannoprotein (MP) but their relative spatial-geographical relationship in the capsule is unknown.  To explore this problem would require the capacity for visualizing these components(More)
Antibody therapy remains the only effective treatment for toxin-mediated diseases. The development of hybridoma technology has allowed the isolation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with high specificity and defined properties, and numerous mAbs have been purified and characterized for their protective efficacy against different toxins. This review(More)
The effector activity of antibodies is dependent on engagement with Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) and activation of the associated intracellular signaling pathways. Preclinical evaluation of therapeutic humanized or chimeric mAbs to study the interactions of their Fc regions with FcγRs is hampered by substantial structural and functional FcγR diversity among(More)
During infection, humoral immunity produces a polyclonal response with various immunoglobulins recognizing different epitopes within the microbe or toxin. Despite this diverse response, the biological activity of an antibody (Ab) is usually assessed by the action of a monoclonal population. We demonstrate that a combination of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)(More)
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a genetic disorder characterized by muscle wasting, myotonia, cataracts, cardiac arrhythmia, hyperinsulinism and intellectual deficits, and is caused by expansion of a CTG repeat in the 3'UTR of the Dystrophia Myotonica-Protein Kinase (DMPK) gene. The DMPK transcripts containing expanded CUG repeats accumulate in nuclear(More)
Galactoxylomannan (GalXM) is a complex polysaccharide produced by the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans that mediates profound immunological derangements in murine models. GalXM is essentially non-immunogenic and produces immune paralysis in mice. Previous studies have attempted to enhance immunogenicity by conjugating GalXM to a protein(More)
Retinal Müller glial cells, in addition to providing homeostatic support to retinal neurons, have been shown to engage in modulation of neuronal activity and regulate vasomotor responses in the retina, among other functions. Calcium-mediated signaling in Müller cells has been implicated to play a significant role in the intracellular and intercellular(More)