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Development of an effective immunoprophylactic agent for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has become imperative due to the increasing number of cases of drug resistance and relapse. Live and killed whole parasites as well as fractionated and recombinant preparations have been evaluated for vaccine potential. However, a successful vaccine against the disease has(More)
faced with the problem that only a partial protein sequence is known. Several procedures are commonly used involving the reverse translation of the protein sequence into a DNA sequence. These include synthesis of a short oligonucleotide sequence for screening libraries and of a primer pair for amplification of target sequence by polymerase chain reaction(More)
Hepatitis E, caused by infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV), is a common cause of acute hepatitis in areas with poor sanitation. The virus has four genotypes with one serotype: genotypes 1 and 2 exclusively infect humans, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 also infect other animals, particularly pigs. In endemic areas, both large outbreaks of acute hepatitis as(More)
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is a non-classical class I antigen. It has limited expression, but is high at the foetomaternal interface. This unique expression pattern of HLA-G suggests that it might be important for survival of the foetus during pregnancy. In the present study, 120 women with recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA) and 120 fertile control(More)
In 1991 the largest epidemic of viral hepatitis E yet reported occurred in Kanpur (population, 2.1 million), India. The incidence of icteric hepatitis from December 1990 to April 1991 among the inhabitants of 420 randomly sampled houses in seven of the city's 50 wards was 3.76% (138 out of 3666 individuals), i.e., an estimated 79,091 persons in the city as(More)
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani is a major parasitic disease prevalent in endemic regions of Bihar in India. In the absence of good chemotherapeutic options, there is a need to develop an effective vaccine against VL which should be dependent on the generation of a T helper type 1 (Th1) immune response. We have shown that soluble(More)
The number connection test (NCT), which assesses the extent of organic brain damage, has been used extensively to evaluate mental state in portasystemic encephalopathy, but has certain inherent limitations. It cannot be performed by illiterates and those unfamiliar with Roman alphanumeric notations. We, therefore, devised a figure connection test (FCT)(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The natural history of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy (SHE) is unknown. The present study was conducted to study the prevalence and the natural history of SHE in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. METHODS One hundred and sixty-five patients with cirrhosis of the liver were studied. A total of nine psychometric tests (trail(More)
BACKGROUND In tropical sprue (TS), response to antibiotics may suggest a role for bacterial contamination of the small bowel, which is known in diseases with prolonged orocecal transit time (OCTT). METHODS We studied 13 patients with TS (diagnosed by standard criteria) for frequency, nature and degree of bacterial contamination of the small bowel by(More)
The leishmaniases are a group of diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Various Leishmania species can cause human infection, producing a spectrum of clinical manifestations. It is estimated that 350 million people are at risk, with a global yearly incidence of 1-1.5 million for cutaneous and 500,000 for visceral leishmaniasis (VL).(More)