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BACKGROUND Infectious diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality among children in the developing world Antibiotic resistance is increasing. Knowledge of pathogens causing infection in pediatrics patients is essential for devising management strategies. OBJECTIVES To assess the bacteriologic profile and the resistance pattern of clinical(More)
In Ethiopia, evidence is lacking about maternal care-taking and environmental risk factors that contribute to acute diarrhoea and the case management of diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors and to understand the management of acute diarrhoea. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for interviewing mothers of 440 children(More)
BACKGROUND Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a major health problem in developing countries. The untreated disease is fatal, available treatment is expensive and often toxic, and drug resistance is increasing. Improved treatment options are needed. Paromomycin was shown to be an efficacious first-line treatment with low toxicity in India. METHODS This was a(More)
BACKGROUND Alternative treatments for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are required in East Africa. Paromomycin sulphate (PM) has been shown to be efficacious for VL treatment in India. METHODS A multi-centre randomized-controlled trial (RCT) to compare efficacy and safety of PM (20 mg/kg/day for 21 days) and PM plus sodium stibogluconate (SSG) combination(More)
BACKGROUND AmBisome® is an efficacious, safe anti-leishmanial treatment. There is growing interest in its use, either as a single dose or in combination treatments. In East Africa, the minimum optimal single-dosage has not been identified. METHODS/DESIGN An open-label, 2-arm, non-inferiority, multi-centre randomised controlled trial is being conducted to(More)
BACKGROUND Anti-leishmanial drug regimens that include a single dose AmBisome could be suitable for eastern African patients with symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) but the appropriate single dose is unknown. METHODOLOGY A multi-centre, open-label, non-inferiority, randomized controlled trial with an adaptive design, was conducted to compare the(More)
In sub-Saharan Africa, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is treated with either Pentostam(TM) (sodium antimony gluconate) or generic sodium stibogluconate (SSG), except in Uganda where Glucantime(®) (meglumine antimoniate) has been in use for at least a decade. Between January 2008 and February 2009, 54 Ethiopian VL patients were treated with Glucantime. The(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani is a major health problem in Ethiopia. Parasites in disparate regions are transmitted by different vectors, and cluster in distinctive genotypes. Recently isolated strains from VL and HIV-VL co-infected patients in north and south Ethiopia were characterized as part of a(More)
Introduction. Clinical reports have indicated positive outcomes associated with disclosure of HIV-positive status in children. This study assessed the level and associated factors of HIV-positive status disclosure to HIV-infected children in northwest Ethiopia. Methods. Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV-positive children from(More)
Diarrheal diseases are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in developing world. Understanding the etiologic agents of diarrheal diseases and their association with socio-demographic characteristics of patients would help to design better preventive measures. Thus, this study was aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and(More)