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Anaplasma phagocytophilum is associated with diseases of goats, sheep, cattle, dogs and horses. In the beginning of the 1990s it was identified as a human pathogen, causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) in the USA, Europe and the far east of Russia. A. phagocytophilum is maintained in nature in an enzootic cycle including ticks as the main vector(More)
Of 250 consecutively admitted patients with central nervous system (CNS) infections who were treated during a 1-year period, all 133 patients with tickborne encephalitis (TBE) were included in a prospective follow-up study. TBE presented as mild (meningeal) in 43.6% of patients and as moderate or severe (encephalitic) in 43.6% and 12.8% of patients,(More)
Tickborne encephalitis (TBE) virus infections can be asymptomatic or cause moderate to severe injuries of the central nervous system. Why some individuals develop severe disease is unknown, but a role for host genetic factors has been suggested. To investigate whether chemokine receptor CCR5 is associated with TBE, CCR5Delta32 genotyping was performed among(More)
To estimate the incidence of, identify risk factors for, and describe the clinical presentation of travel-associated African tick bite fever (ATBF), a rapidly emerging disease in travel medicine, we prospectively studied a cohort of 940 travelers to rural sub-Equatorial Africa. Diagnosis was based on suicide polymerase chain reaction and the detection of(More)
A radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA) was used to study the serum antibody responses to individual polypeptides that developed after infection with viruses from human rotavirus subgroups I and II. Paired sera from eight children (1 to 8.5 years of age) were used in the study. Although all of the eight acute sera were negative by the complement fixation(More)
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a severe problem in Estonia. In the present article the first genetic analysis of Estonian TBEV strains is described. In total, seven TBEV strains were isolated from ticks (Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcaus), rodents (Apodemus agrarius and Cletrionomys glareolus), and serum from a tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) patient.(More)
The incidence of Ockelbo disease and the prevalence of Ockelbo virus neutralizing antibodies were investigated in a sample of the Swedish population. The disease occurs throughout most of Sweden but with higher incidence and antibody prevalence rates in the central part of the country. It generally affects middle-aged men and women, with equal incidence(More)
Approximately 20 cases of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) occur annually in Finland. The known endemic areas are situated mainly in the archipelago and coastal regions of Finland, with highest incidence in Aland islands. Ixodes ricinus panels collected in 1996-1997 from two endemic areas were screened for the presence of RNA. Two distinct RT-PCR methods were(More)
The presence of Babesia spp. was studied in 2603 Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus ticks collected at seven sites in Estonia. By reverse line blot screening, Babesia spp. was detected in 36 (1.4%) ticks, among them 18 (0.7%) were further recognized by a Babesia microti probe, 3 (0.1%) by a Babesia divergens probe, and the other 15 (0.6%) were recognized(More)
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a severe problem in Lithuania, indicated by the 171 to 645 serologically confirmed cases that occurred each year between 1993 and 1999. In the present report, the first isolation and partial genetic analysis of a Lithuanian TBE virus (TBEV) strain isolated from a patient's serum sample is described. The patient was bitten by(More)