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Deregulation of Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) is implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer and diabetes. Akt/PKB activation requires the phosphorylation of Thr308 in the activation loop by the phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) and Ser473 within the carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic motif by an unknown kinase. We show that in Drosophila and human cells the(More)
mTOR/RAFT1/FRAP is the target of the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin and the central component of a nutrient- and hormone-sensitive signaling pathway that regulates cell growth. We report that mTOR forms a stoichiometric complex with raptor, an evolutionarily conserved protein with at least two roles in the mTOR pathway. Raptor has a positive role in(More)
The mammalian TOR (mTOR) pathway integrates nutrient- and growth factor-derived signals to regulate growth, the process whereby cells accumulate mass and increase in size. mTOR is a large protein kinase and the target of rapamycin, an immunosuppressant that also blocks vessel restenosis and has potential anticancer applications. mTOR interacts with the(More)
The drug rapamycin has important uses in oncology, cardiology, and transplantation medicine, but its clinically relevant molecular effects are not understood. When bound to FKBP12, rapamycin interacts with and inhibits the kinase activity of a multiprotein complex composed of mTOR, mLST8, and raptor (mTORC1). The distinct complex of mTOR, mLST8, and rictor(More)
The mammalian TOR (mTOR) pathway is a key regulator of cell growth and proliferation and increasing evidence suggests that its deregulation is associated with human diseases, including cancer and diabetes. The mTOR pathway integrates signals from nutrients, energy status and growth factors to regulate many processes, including autophagy, ribosome biogenesis(More)
mTOR and raptor are components of a signaling pathway that regulates mammalian cell growth in response to nutrients and growth factors. Here, we identify a member of this pathway, a protein named GbetaL that binds to the kinase domain of mTOR and stabilizes the interaction of raptor with mTOR. Like mTOR and raptor, GbetaL participates in nutrient- and(More)
The immunosuppressant drug FK506 binds to the immunophilin protein FKBP12 and inhibits its prolyl isomerase activity. Immunosuppressive actions, however, are mediated via an FK506-FKBP12 inhibition of the Ca(2+)-activated phosphatase calcineurin. Physiologic cellular roles for FKBP12 have remained unclear. FKBP12 is physically associated with the RyR and(More)
BACKGROUND To determine genomic alterations in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumors obtained through routine clinical practice, selected cancer-related genes were evaluated and compared with alterations seen in frozen tumors obtained through research studies. PATIENTS AND METHODS DNA samples(More)
BACKGROUND Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a subtype of primary liver cancer that is rarely curable by surgery and is rapidly increasing in incidence. Relapsed ICC has a poor prognosis, and current systemic nontargeted therapies are commonly extrapolated from those used in other gastrointestinal malignancies. We hypothesized that genomic profiling(More)
UNLABELLED Histiocytic neoplasms are clonal, hematopoietic disorders characterized by an accumulation of abnormal, monocyte-derived dendritic cells or macrophages in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis (non-LCH), respectively. The discovery of BRAF(V600E) mutations in approximately 50% of these patients provided the(More)