Siobhán Leonard

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While the slow onset of desensitization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), relative to the rate of acetylcholine removal, excludes this kinetic state from shaping synaptic responses in normal neuromuscular transmission, its role in neuromuscular disorders has not been examined. The slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (SCCMS) is a disorder(More)
Modulation of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-mediated signal transduction pathway by the inhalational anesthetic enflurane was studied in Xenopus oocytes expressing mouse and human cortical mRNA. We found that enflurane significantly inhibited ion currents activated by m1 muscarinic and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1c receptors. This inhibition was(More)
The effects of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide anion (O 2 . −) and hydroxyl radical (•OH) on the surface tension lowering properties of bovine lipid extract surfactant (BLES) were compared to the effects of calf serum protein (CSP) in a captive bubble surfactometer (CBS). O 2 . − was generated from xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO), and •OH was(More)
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder primarily caused by insulin resistance to which obesity is a major contributor. Expression levels of an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), GPR21, demonstrated a trend towards a significant increase in the epididymal fat pads of wild type high fat high sugar (HFHS)-fed mice. To gain further insight into(More)
BACKGROUND Retinol binding protein (RBP) and its membrane receptor, STRA6, are vital for the management of vitamin A in the body. Recently, elevated serum RBP levels have been implicated as a contributing factor to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, conflicting opinions exist as to how these increased levels can cause(More)
Metformin is the main drug of choice for treating type 2 diabetes, yet the therapeutic regimens and side effects of the compound are all undesirable and can lead to reduced compliance. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of action of two novel compounds which improved glucose handling and weight gain in mice on a high-fat diet. Wildtype(More)
Elevated serum retinol-binding protein (RBP) concentration has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Two series of small molecules have been designed to lower serum levels by reducing secretion of the transthyretin-RBP complex from the liver and enhancing RBP clearance through the kidney. These small molecules were(More)
Jojoba seed meal shows appetite-suppressing activity due to the presence of simmondsin. This pharmacological activity disappears with treatment of the meal with sodium hydroxide. To elucidate this mechanism of inactivation, the reaction of simmondsin in 1 N NaOH at 20 degrees C was monitored as a function of time. The end products of the reaction as well as(More)
RTC-1 has recently been identified as a member of a new class of anti-diabetic compounds acting through the inhibition of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) to improve glucose handling and inhibit weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The exact mechanism by which the reduced activity of NADH:ubiquinone(More)
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