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Influenza viruses exploit host cell machinery to replicate, resulting in epidemics of respiratory illness. In turn, the host expresses antiviral restriction factors to defend against infection. To find host cell modifiers of influenza A H1N1 viral infection, we used a functional genomic screen and identified over 120 influenza A virus-dependency factors(More)
To replicate, viruses must gain access to the host cell's resources. Interferon (IFN) regulates the actions of a large complement of interferon effector genes (IEGs) that prevent viral replication. The interferon inducible transmembrane protein family members, IFITM1, 2 and 3, are IEGs required for inhibition of influenza A virus, dengue virus, and West(More)
The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic showed the speed with which a novel respiratory virus can spread and the ability of a generally mild infection to induce severe morbidity and mortality in a subset of the population. Recent in vitro studies show that the interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) protein family members potently restrict the replication of(More)
The flaviviruses dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are severe health threats with rapidly expanding ranges. To identify the host cell dependencies of DENV and ZIKV, we completed orthologous functional genomic screens using RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 approaches. The screens recovered the ZIKV entry factor AXL as well as multiple host factors involved in(More)
HIV-1 depends on many host factors for propagation. Other host factors, however, antagonize HIV-1 and may have profound effects on viral activation. Curing HIV-1 requires the reduction of latent viral reservoirs that remain in the face of antiretroviral therapy. Using orthologous genetic screens, we identified bromodomain containing 4 (BRD4) as a negative(More)
The interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) gene is an interferon-stimulated gene that inhibits the replication of multiple pathogenic viruses in vitro and in vivo. IFITM3 is a member of a large protein superfamily, whose members share a functionally undefined area of high amino acid conservation, the CD225 domain. We performed mutational(More)
RNAi screens have implicated hundreds of host proteins as HIV-1 dependency factors (HDFs). While informative, these early studies overlap poorly due to false positives and false negatives. To ameliorate these issues, we combined information from the existing HDF screens together with new screens performed with multiple orthologous RNAi reagents (MORR). In(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of end-stage liver disease. Interferon-α (IFNα) is an important component of anti-HCV therapy; it up-regulates transcription of IFN-stimulated genes, many of which have been investigated for their antiviral effects. However, all of the genes required for the antiviral function of IFNα(More)
Integrase (IN) mediates the covalent insertion of the retroviral genome into its host chromosomal DNA. This enzymatic activity can be reconstituted in vitro with short DNA oligonucleotides, which mimic a single viral DNA end, and purified IN. Herein we report a highly efficient and sensitive high-throughput screen, HIV Integrase Target SRI Assay (HITS), for(More)
Linker-scanning libraries were generated within the 3' terminus of the Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) pol gene encoding the connection-RNase H domains of reverse transcriptase (RT) as well as the structurally related M-MuLV and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase (IN) proteins. Mutations within the M-MuLV proviral vectors were Tn7(More)