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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the important causes of mortality and morbidity. The pathogenesis of the underlying brain dysfunction is poorly understood. Recent data have suggested that oxygen free radicals play a key role in the primary and secondary processes of acute TBI. We report direct electron spin resonance (ESR) evidence of hydroxyl (.OH)(More)
Any perturbation of the blood brain barrier, whether from changes in cell physiology or from direct injury, may result in microvascular dysfunction and disease. We examined, at the ultrastructural level, microvascular pericyte responses in a well-defined model of traumatic brain injury in the rat. In areas close to the site of impact cortical pericytes(More)
Very small amounts of pituitary hormones and their peptide fragments can profoundly affect learning, memory and other behaviors in both rodents and humans. In addition, several potent pituitary hormone analogs have been developed (e.g. ORG-2766) which retain the behavioral but not the endocrine properties of the parent hormone. The abilities of these(More)
The combined effects of acute alcoholic intoxication and moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) on zif/268, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA expression were examined. Adult male Wistar rats received ip injections of a 5% alcohol solution (2.4 g/kg in a final volume of 20 ml isotonic saline) 10 min prior to fixed-head,(More)
The effects of subconvulsant and convulsant doses of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) on cerebral blood flow (rCBF), permeability-capillary surface area products (rPS), and brain vascular spaces (BVS) were examined in 15 brain regions at 1 h, 24 h and 1 week after injection in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Brain histology was examined 3 days after injection. A dose of(More)
The authors used indicator fractionation techniques to determine blood flow in normal and bluntly traumatized spinal cords of Macaca rhesus monkeys. Normal flow rates were determined for several levels of spinal cord as well as differential values for white and gray matter from representative areas. Flow rates in traumatized tissue, obtained at several(More)
Average femoral geometry was determined from sections of 25 human femurs. A 'stem design program' was used to determine the largest femoral stem that could be introduced into the canal. The stem was fine tuned by observations of fit in Plexiglass models of the 25 femurs. This stem was called the 'Exact-Fit'. Type 1 stem was formed by grinding the anterior(More)
Regional cerebrovascular permeability-capillary surface area products (rPS) and brain vascular space (BVS) were measured in aging, conscious, unrestrained Sprague-Dawley rats. Three groups of animals were examined: young-mature (6 months), middle-aged (12-14 months), and old (24-26 months) rats. Complex maze learning had been previously characterized in(More)