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Currently, the relatively high cost of enzymes such as glycoside hydrolases that catalyze cellulose hydrolysis represents a barrier to commercialization of a biorefinery capable of producing renewable transportable fuels such as ethanol from abundant lignocellulosic biomass. Among the many families of glycoside hydrolases that catalyze cellulose and(More)
The structure of the DNA-binding NAC domain of Arabidopsis ANAC (abscisic-acid-responsive NAC) has been determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.9A resolution (Protein Data Bank codes 1UT4 and 1UT7). This is the first structure determined for a member of the NAC family of plant-specific transcriptional regulators. NAC proteins are characterized by their(More)
Here we report the first three-dimensional structure of a phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase. PRPP is an essential intermediate in several biosynthetic pathways. Structures of the Bacillus subtilis PRPP synthetase in complex with analogs of the activator phosphate and the allosteric inhibitor ADP show that the functional form of the enzyme is a(More)
Malaria is a major global health problem. Pregnant women are susceptible to infection regardless of previously acquired immunity. Placental malaria is caused by parasites capable of sequestering in the placenta. This is mediated by VAR2CSA, a parasite antigen that interacts with chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). One vaccine strategy is to block this interaction(More)
The prs gene encoding phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) synthase of the hyperthermophilic autotrophic methanogenic archaeon Methanocaldococcus jannaschii has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Subsequently, M.jannaschii PRPP synthase has been purified, characterised, crystallised, and the crystal structure determined. The enzyme is activated by(More)
We have used the 2.6 A structure of the rabbit sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase isoform 1a, SERCA1a [Toyoshima, C., Nakasako, M., Nomura, H. and Ogawa, H. (2000) Nature 405, 647-655], to build models by homology modelling of two plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPases, Arabidopsis thaliana AHA2 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae PMA1. We propose that in both yeast(More)
RNase PH is a member of the family of phosphorolytic 3' --> 5' exoribonucleases that also includes polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase). RNase PH is involved in the maturation of tRNA precursors and especially important for removal of nucleotide residues near the CCA acceptor end of the mature tRNAs. Wild-type and triple mutant R68Q-R73Q-R76Q RNase PH from(More)
The upp gene, encoding uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase) from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity. It behaved as a tetramer in solution and showed optimal activity at pH 5.5 when assayed at 60 degrees C. Enzyme activity was strongly stimulated(More)
The adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to human tissues or endothelium is central to the pathology caused by the parasite during malaria. It contributes to the avoidance of parasite clearance by the spleen and to the specific pathologies of cerebral and placental malaria. The PfEMP1 family of adhesive proteins is responsible for this(More)
Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase) is part of the salvage pathway that leads to the biosynthesis of UMP. It catalyzes the formation of UMP and pyrophosphate from uracil and alpha-D-5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate. Unlike enzymes in the de novo synthesis of UMP, UPRTases have only been found in lower organisms and are therefore potential targets for(More)