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Three experiments studied temporal-difference (TD) prediction errors during Pavlovian fear conditioning. In Stage I, rats received conditioned stimulus A (CSA) paired with shock. In Stage II, they received pairings of CSA and CSB with shock that blocked learning to CSB. In Stage III, a serial overlapping compound, CSB --> CSA, was followed by shock. The(More)
The authors used a within-subject blocking design to study the role of ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (v1PAG) opioid receptors in regulating prediction errors during Pavlovian fear conditioning. In Stage I, the authors trained rats to fear conditioned stimulus (CS) A by pairing it with shock. In Stage II, CSA and CSB were co-presented and followed with(More)
The amygdala is important for reward-associated learning, but how distinct cell groups within this heterogeneous structure are recruited during appetitive learning is unclear. Here we used Fos induction to map the functional amygdalar circuitry recruited during early and late training sessions of Pavlovian appetitive conditioning. We found that a number of(More)
The amygdala, prefrontal cortex, striatum and other connected forebrain areas are important for reward-associated learning and subsequent behaviors. How these structurally and functionally dissociable regions are recruited during initial learning, however, is unclear. Recently, we showed amygdalar nuclei were differentially recruited across different stages(More)
Pavlovian fear learning depends on predictive error, so that fear learning occurs when the actual outcome of a conditioning trial exceeds the expected outcome. Previous research has shown that opioid receptors, including mu-opioid receptors in the ventrolateral quadrant of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), mediate such predictive fear learning. Four(More)
Six experiments used a within-subjects renewal design to examine the involvement of kappa opioid receptors (KORs) in regulating the expression and recovery of extinguished fear. Rats were trained to fear a tone conditioned stimulus (CS) via pairings with foot shock in a distinctive context (A). This was followed by extinction training of the CS in a second(More)
Pavlovian fear conditioning is not a unitary process. At the neurobiological level multiple brain regions and neurotransmitters contribute to fear learning. At the behavioral level many variables contribute to fear learning including the physical salience of the events being learned about, the direction and magnitude of predictive error, and the rate at(More)
The orexin/hypocretin system is important for reward-seeking behaviors, however less is known about its function in non-homeostatic feeding. Environmental influences, particularly cues for food can stimulate feeding in the absence of hunger and lead to maladaptive overeating behavior. The key components of the neural network that mediates this cue-induced(More)
Pavlovian fear conditioning depends on prediction error, or the discrepancy between actual and expected outcomes. We used immunohistochemistry, neuronal tract tracing, and reversible inactivation to study the role of prefrontal cortex and thalamocortical pathways in predictive fear learning. Unexpected, but not expected, conditioned stimulus(More)