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The orexin/hypocretin system is important for reward-seeking behaviors, however less is known about its function in non-homeostatic feeding. Environmental influences, particularly cues for food can stimulate feeding in the absence of hunger and lead to maladaptive overeating behavior. The key components of the neural network that mediates this cue-induced(More)
Three experiments studied temporal-difference (TD) prediction errors during Pavlovian fear conditioning. In Stage I, rats received conditioned stimulus A (CSA) paired with shock. In Stage II, they received pairings of CSA and CSB with shock that blocked learning to CSB. In Stage III, a serial overlapping compound, CSB --> CSA, was followed by shock. The(More)
The amygdala is important for reward-associated learning, but how distinct cell groups within this heterogeneous structure are recruited during appetitive learning is unclear. Here we used Fos induction to map the functional amygdalar circuitry recruited during early and late training sessions of Pavlovian appetitive conditioning. We found that a number of(More)
The authors used a within-subject blocking design to study the role of ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (v1PAG) opioid receptors in regulating prediction errors during Pavlovian fear conditioning. In Stage I, the authors trained rats to fear conditioned stimulus (CS) A by pairing it with shock. In Stage II, CSA and CSB were co-presented and followed with(More)
Pavlovian fear conditioning is not a unitary process. At the neurobiological level multiple brain regions and neurotransmitters contribute to fear learning. At the behavioral level many variables contribute to fear learning including the physical salience of the events being learned about, the direction and magnitude of predictive error, and the rate at(More)
Pavlovian fear learning depends on predictive error, so that fear learning occurs when the actual outcome of a conditioning trial exceeds the expected outcome. Previous research has shown that opioid receptors, including mu-opioid receptors in the ventrolateral quadrant of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), mediate such predictive fear learning. Four(More)
Six experiments used a within-subjects renewal design to examine the involvement of kappa opioid receptors (KORs) in regulating the expression and recovery of extinguished fear. Rats were trained to fear a tone conditioned stimulus (CS) via pairings with foot shock in a distinctive context (A). This was followed by extinction training of the CS in a second(More)
Pavlovian fear conditioning depends on prediction error, or the discrepancy between actual and expected outcomes. We used immunohistochemistry, neuronal tract tracing, and reversible inactivation to study the role of prefrontal cortex and thalamocortical pathways in predictive fear learning. Unexpected, but not expected, conditioned stimulus(More)
At the late clinical stage of scrapie in mice, the severity and distribution of vacuolation in the brain (the lesion profile) is largely determined by the strain of agent and the genotype of the mouse: under controlled conditions, lesion profiles can be used to distinguish between scrapie strains. This paper describes the sequential development of lesions(More)
Previous studies of mice infected peripherally with 139A scrapie showed that scrapie agent initially replicates outside the CNS and that invasion of the CNS occurs several weeks later by neural spread of infection along visceral autonomic fibres to the mid-thoracic cord, and thence to brain. Direct intracerebral infection of brain bypasses the need for(More)