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Pathogenic bacteria secrete proteins that promote invasion of host tissues and resistance to immune responses. However, secretion mechanisms that contribute to the enormous morbidity and mortality of Gram-positive bacteria are largely undefined. An auxiliary protein secretion system (SecA2) has recently emerged in Listeria monocytogenes and eight other(More)
The unkempt gene of Drosophila encodes a set of embryonic RNAs, which are abundant during early stages of embryogenesis and are present ubiquitously in most somatic tissues from the syncytial embryo through stage 15 of embryogenesis. Expression of unkempt RNAs becomes restricted predominantly to the central nervous system in stages 16 and early 17. Analysis(More)
Bacterial pathogens express virulence-specific transcriptional programs that allow tissue colonization. Although phenotypic variation has been noted in the context of antibiotic exposure, no direct evidence exists for heterogeneity in virulence-specific transcriptional programs within tissues. In a mouse model of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection, we(More)
Rho family GTPases are important regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. Activation of these proteins can be promoted by guanine nucleotide exchange factors containing Dbl and Pleckstrin homology domains resulting in membrane insertion of a Rho family member, whereas the inactive GDP-bound form is sequestered primarily in the cytoplasm, bound to the guanosine(More)
The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis surface protein invasin binds to multiple beta1 integrins with high affinity, leading to misregulation of Rac1 activity. Upon host cell binding, alteration of Rho GTPase activity results from the action of several Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) that are translocated into the cytoplasm. We report here that three virulence(More)
The process of phagocytosis in multicellular organisms is required for homeostasis, clearance of foreign particles, and establishment of long-term immunity, yet the molecular determinants of uptake are not well characterized. Cdc42, a Rho guanosine triphosphatase, is thought to orchestrate critical actin remodeling events needed for internalization. In this(More)
Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease, intercepts material from host cell membrane transport pathways to create a specialized vacuolar compartment that supports bacterial replication. Delivery of bacterial effector proteins into the host cell requires the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system. Several(More)
A highly conserved virulence plasmid encoding a type III secretion system is shared by the three Yersinia species most pathogenic for mammals. Although factors encoded on this plasmid enhance the ability of Yersinia to thrive in their mammalian hosts, the loss of this virulence plasmid does not eliminate growth or survival in host organs. Most notably,(More)
The COOH-terminal polybasic region (PBR) of Rac1, a Rho family GTPase member, is required for Rac1 self-association, membrane localization, nuclear translocation, and interaction with downstream effectors. We previously demonstrated that phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, one of the effectors that requires the polybasic region for interaction, is(More)
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