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Sodium-dependent, high-affinity glutamate transport is generally assumed to limit the toxicity of glutamate in vivo and in vitro, but there is very little direct evidence to support this hypothesis. In the present study, the effects of the specific uptake inhibitor L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate on the toxicity and clearance of glutamate were(More)
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic disorder in which the hydroxylation of phenylalanine (Phe) to tyrosine is severely disrupted. If PKU is left untreated, severe mental retardation results. The accepted treatment is to restrict dietary intake of Phe. It has generally been thought that cognitive impairments are prevented if levels of Phe in plasma are(More)
Using middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and in vivo microdialysis, we have evaluated the changes in extracellular concentrations of the excitatory amino acids (EAA) glutamate and aspartate during varying periods of MCAO (0, 30, 60 min) in the striatum of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A positive correlation between occlusion time-dependent(More)
Exposure to HBO causes hypothermia, bradycardia, head weaving, resting tremor, piloerection, and straub tail in rats. These physiological and behavioral responses can also be evoked by selective activation of serotonin1A (5-HT1A) receptors. The purpose of the current study was to determine if hypothermia caused by HBO is due to increased activation of(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether glutamine (GLN), tryptophan (TRP), and tryptophan metabolite concentrations are higher in cerebralspinal fluid (CSF) dogs with naturally occurring portosystemic shunts (PSS), compared with control dogs. ANIMALS 11 dogs with confirmed PSS and 12 control dogs fed low- and high-protein diets. PROCEDURE Cerebrospinal fluid and(More)
Children with inborn errors of urea synthesis who survive neonatal hyperammonemic coma commonly exhibit cognitive deficits and neurologic abnormalities. Yet, there is evidence that ammonia is not the only neurotoxin. Hyperammonemia appears to induce a number of neurochemical alterations. In rodent models of hyperammonemia, uptake of L-tryptophan into brain(More)
Using sodium (NaN3)-induced anoxia plus aglycaemia as a model of chemically-induced ischemia, we have characterized the endogenous release of excitatory and inhibitory amino acids from superfused hippocampal slices. Chemical ischemia produced an azide (1-30 mM) dose-dependent increase in the efflux of glutamate, aspartate and GABA. These increases were(More)
Levels of the excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN) were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid of infants and children with congenital hyperammonemia. Twofold to tenfold elevations of QUIN were found in 4 neonates in hyperammonemic coma (QUIN range, 250-990 nM; control mean, 110 +/- 90 nM; p < 0.005). Similar elevations of neopterin were found (range, 24-75 nM;(More)
Using sodium azide (NaN3)-induced anoxia plus aglycaemia as a model of chemically-induced ischemia in the hippocampal slice, we have evaluated the effects of the novel 5-HT(1A) partial agonist/5-HT(2) receptor antagonist adatanserin and the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist BAYx3702 on the efflux of endogenous glutamate, aspartate and GABA. BAYx3702 (10-1000 nM)(More)
Because of the well-documented importance of glutamate uptake in protecting neurons against glutamate toxicity, we were interested in testing the effects of L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (PDC) on rat cortical cultures. This compound is a substrate for glutamate transporters and is a potent glutamate transport inhibitor that does not interact(More)