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UNLABELLED A novel avian-origin influenza A/H7N9 virus infecting humans was first identified in March 2013 and, as of 30 May 2013, has caused 132 human infections leading to 33 deaths. Phylogenetic studies suggest that this virus is a reassortant, with the surface hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes being derived from duck and wild-bird viruses,(More)
1511 Influenza is an acute respiratory virus infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality that continues to threaten global public Both innate and adaptive immune systems play critical roles in protecting against influenza A viruses, and direct manipulation of host immunity may help protect individuals against these viruses (Peiris et al.,(More)
Genetic diversity of influenza A viruses (IAV) acquired through the error-prone RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) or through genetic reassortment enables perpetuation of IAV in humans through epidemics or pandemics. Here, to assess the biological significance of genetic diversity acquired through RdRP, we characterize an IAV fidelity variant derived from(More)
BACKGROUND The SARS outbreak in 2003 provides a unique opportunity for the study of human responses to a novel virus. We have previously reported that dendritic cells (DCs) might be involved in the immune escape mechanisms for SARS-CoV. In this study, we focussed on the gene expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs), chemokine receptors (CCRs) and death(More)
Human infections with influenza viruses exhibit mild to severe clinical outcomes as a result of complex virus-host interactions. Induction of inflammatory mediators via pattern recognition receptors may dictate subsequent host responses for pathogen clearance and tissue damage. We identified that human C-type lectin domain family 5 member A (CLEC5A)(More)
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