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Lymphopenia and increasing viral load in the first 10 days of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) suggested immune evasion by SARS-coronavirus (CoV). In this study, we focused on dendritic cells (DCs) which play important roles in linking the innate and adaptive immunity. SARS-CoV was shown to infect both immature and mature human monocyte-derived DCs(More)
UNLABELLED A novel avian-origin influenza A/H7N9 virus emerged in 2013 to cause more than 130 cases of zoonotic human disease, with an overall case fatality rate of around 30% in cases detected. It has been shown that an E-to-K amino acid change at residue 627 of polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2) occurred frequently in the H7N9 isolates obtained from humans(More)
We investigated the tropism, host responses, and virulence of two variants of A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/1997 (H9N2) (H9N2/G1) with D253N and Q591K in the PB2 protein in primary human macrophages and bronchial epithelium in vitro and in mice in vivo. Virus with PB2 D253N and Q591K had greater polymerase activity in minireplicon assays, induced more tumor necrosis(More)
BACKGROUND Influenza virus is a cause of substantial annual morbidity and mortality worldwide. The potential emergence of a new pandemic strain (eg, avian influenza virus) is a major concern. Currently available vaccines and anti-influenza drugs have limited effectiveness for influenza virus infections, especially for new pandemic strains. Therefore, there(More)
UNLABELLED A novel avian-origin influenza A/H7N9 virus infecting humans was first identified in March 2013 and, as of 30 May 2013, has caused 132 human infections leading to 33 deaths. Phylogenetic studies suggest that this virus is a reassortant, with the surface hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes being derived from duck and wild-bird viruses,(More)
Genetic diversity of influenza A viruses (IAV) acquired through the error-prone RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) or through genetic reassortment enables perpetuation of IAV in humans through epidemics or pandemics. Here, to assess the biological significance of genetic diversity acquired through RdRP, we characterize an IAV fidelity variant derived from(More)
The Rockefeller University Press $30.00 J. Exp. Med. Vol. 208 No. 7 1511-1522 www.jem.org/cgi/doi/10.1084/jem.20110226 1511 Influenza is an acute respiratory virus infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality that continues to threaten global public health (Guan et al., 2004; Palese, 2004; Tumpey et al., 2005; Dawood et al., 2009; Fraser et(More)
BACKGROUND Neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors are the only licensed therapeutic option for human zoonotic H7N9 infections. An NA-R292K mutation that confers broad-spectrum resistance to NA inhibitors has been documented in H7N9 patients after treatment. METHODS We evaluated the transmission potential of a human influenza A H7N9 isolate with a NA-R292K mutation(More)
Limited antiviral compounds are available for the control of influenza, and the emergence of resistant variants would further narrow the options for defense. The H275Y neuraminidase (NA) mutation, which confers resistance to oseltamivir carboxylate, has been identified among the seasonal H1N1 and 2009 pandemic influenza viruses; however, those H275Y(More)
Human infections with influenza viruses exhibit mild to severe clinical outcomes as a result of complex virus-host interactions. Induction of inflammatory mediators via pattern recognition receptors may dictate subsequent host responses for pathogen clearance and tissue damage. We identified that human C-type lectin domain family 5 member A (CLEC5A)(More)