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Lymphopenia and increasing viral load in the first 10 days of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) suggested immune evasion by SARS-coronavirus (CoV). In this study, we focused on dendritic cells (DCs) which play important roles in linking the innate and adaptive immunity. SARS-CoV was shown to infect both immature and mature human monocyte-derived DCs(More)
We investigated the tropism, host responses, and virulence of two variants of A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/1997 (H9N2) (H9N2/G1) with D253N and Q591K in the PB2 protein in primary human macrophages and bronchial epithelium in vitro and in mice in vivo. Virus with PB2 D253N and Q591K had greater polymerase activity in minireplicon assays, induced more tumor necrosis(More)
Genetic diversity of influenza A viruses (IAV) acquired through the error-prone RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) or through genetic reassortment enables perpetuation of IAV in humans through epidemics or pandemics. Here, to assess the biological significance of genetic diversity acquired through RdRP, we characterize an IAV fidelity variant derived from(More)
Influenza is an acute respiratory viral disease that is transmitted in the first few days of infection. Evasion of host innate immune defenses, including natural killer (NK) cells, is important for the virus's success as a pathogen of humans and other animals. NK cells encounter influenza viruses within the microenvironment of infected cells and are(More)
There are few antiviral drugs for treating influenza, and the emergence of antiviral resistance has further limited the available therapeutic options. Furthermore, antivirals are not invariably effective in severe influenza, such as that caused by H5N1 viruses. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop alternative therapeutic strategies. Here, we show that(More)
UNLABELLED A novel avian-origin influenza A/H7N9 virus emerged in 2013 to cause more than 130 cases of zoonotic human disease, with an overall case fatality rate of around 30% in cases detected. It has been shown that an E-to-K amino acid change at residue 627 of polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2) occurred frequently in the H7N9 isolates obtained from humans(More)
BACKGROUND Influenza virus is a cause of substantial annual morbidity and mortality worldwide. The potential emergence of a new pandemic strain (eg, avian influenza virus) is a major concern. Currently available vaccines and anti-influenza drugs have limited effectiveness for influenza virus infections, especially for new pandemic strains. Therefore, there(More)
UNLABELLED A novel avian-origin influenza A/H7N9 virus infecting humans was first identified in March 2013 and, as of 30 May 2013, has caused 132 human infections leading to 33 deaths. Phylogenetic studies suggest that this virus is a reassortant, with the surface hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes being derived from duck and wild-bird viruses,(More)
UNLABELLED Poultry exposure is a major risk factor for human H7N9 zoonotic infections, for which the mode of transmission remains unclear. We studied the transmission of genetically related poultry and human H7N9 influenza viruses differing by four amino acids, including the host determinant PB2 residue 627. A/Silkie chicken/HK/1772/2014 (SCk1772) and(More)
BACKGROUND The SARS outbreak in 2003 provides a unique opportunity for the study of human responses to a novel virus. We have previously reported that dendritic cells (DCs) might be involved in the immune escape mechanisms for SARS-CoV. In this study, we focussed on the gene expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs), chemokine receptors (CCRs) and death(More)