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BACKGROUND Background The leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) harbours highly penetrant mutations that are linked to familial parkinsonism. However, the extent of its polymorphic variability in relation to risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) has not been assessed systematically. We therefore assessed the frequency of LRRK2 exonic variants in individuals(More)
BACKGROUND The subthalamic nucleus (STN) as an effective target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in advanced Parkinson's disease is functionally divided into the dorsolateral sensorimotor and the ventromedial limbic and associative parts. To implant electrodes for DBS close to the sensorimotor region is considered crucial for optimal motor benefit and for(More)
OBJECTIVE Transcranial sonography (TCS) shows characteristic hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Although this feature is well established, sufficient observer reliability and diagnostic accuracy are prerequisites for advancements of this method. METHODS The authors investigated both aspects in a(More)
The reduction of arm swing during gait is a frequent phenomenon in patients with early Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the objective quantification of this clinical sign using treadmill-based gait analysis has not been systematically evaluated so far. We simultaneously measured ultrasound based limb kinematics and spatiotemporal gait parameters during(More)
Ataxin-2 is a novel protein, normally with a domain of 22 consecutive glutamine (Q) residues, which may expand beyond a threshold of (Q)(32), causing a neurodegenerative disease named Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). To obtain clues about the functions of ataxin-2, we used fluorescence microscopy and centrifugation fractionation analyses.(More)
OBJECTIVE We studied the independent and joint effects of the genes encoding alpha-synuclein (SNCA) and microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) in Parkinson disease (PD) as part of a large meta-analysis of individual data from case-control studies participating in the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease (GEO-PD) consortium. METHODS Participants(More)
This study set out to determine whether there is white matter involvement in essential tremor (ET), the most common movement disorder. We collected diffusion MRI and analysed differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) between ET patients and control subjects as markers of white matter integrity. We used both classical ROI-based(More)
Soporific acute hyperammonemic hepatic encephalopathy (aHE) can induce considerable changes in cerebral white and gray matter. This report describes a patient in the subacute phase of aHE grade I without disturbed consciousness and with reversible fine laminar cortical involvement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The 59-year-old patient had esophageal(More)
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