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Malnutrition affects up to one billion people in the world and is a major cause of mortality. In many cases, malnutrition is associated with diarrhoea and intestinal inflammation, further contributing to morbidity and death. The mechanisms by which unbalanced dietary nutrients affect intestinal homeostasis are largely unknown. Here we report that deficiency(More)
The intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes intestinal inflammation characterized by edema, neutrophil influx and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. A major bacterial factor inducing pro-inflammatory host responses is lipopolysaccharide (LPS). S. Typhimurium ΔmsbB possesses a modified lipid A, has reduced virulence(More)
Burkitt lymphoma is a mature aggressive B-cell lymphoma derived from germinal center B cells. Its cytogenetic hallmark is the Burkitt translocation t(8;14)(q24;q32) and its variants, which juxtapose the MYC oncogene with one of the three immunoglobulin loci. Consequently, MYC is deregulated, resulting in massive perturbation of gene expression.(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 140 Crohn's disease (CD) susceptibility loci. For most loci, the variants that cause disease are not known and the genes affected by these variants have not been identified. We aimed to identify variants that cause CD through detailed sequencing, genetic association, expression, and(More)
Generation of microbicidal reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a pivotal protective component of the innate immune system in many eukaryotes. NOD (nucleotide oligomerisation domain containing protein)-like receptors (NLRs) have been implicated as phylogenetically ancient sensors of intracellular pathogens or endogenous danger signals. NOD2 recognizes the(More)
The Brassica-derived isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SFN) is known to induce factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor centrally involved in chemoprevention. Furthermore, SFN exhibits anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known regarding the anti-inflammatory properties of SFN in severe inflammatory(More)
Caspase activating and recruitment domain 8 (CARD8) has been implicated as a co-regulator of several pro-inflammatory and apoptotic signaling pathways. In the present study, we demonstrate a specific modulation of NOD2-induced signaling by CARD8 in intestinal epithelial cells. We show that CARD8 physically interacts with NOD2 and inhibits nodosome assembly(More)
The intracellular nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2) receptor detects bacteria-derived muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and activates the transcription factor NF-κB. Here we describe the regulatome of NOD2 signaling using a systematic RNAi screen. Using three consecutive screens, we identified a set of 20 positive NF-κB regulators including the known(More)
Recent studies suggest that monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is involved in fibrosis through the regulation of profibrotic cytokine generation and matrix deposition. Changes in MCP-1, C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), procollagen I and III, and TGF beta were examined in fibroblasts cultured from normal lung and from nonfibrotic (i.e., Th1-type) and(More)
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) are a group of intracellular proteins that mediate recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or other cytosolic danger signals. Mutations in NLR genes have been linked to a variety of inflammatory diseases, underscoring their pivotal role in host defense and immunity. This report(More)