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The influence of temperature and humidity on the survival of airborne viruses was studied in a static system. Preliminary experiments with a bacteriophage showed that relative humidity was more important than temperature and absolute humidity. The effect of relative humidity was not dependent on the composition of the medium surrounding the virus particles.(More)
OBJECTIVE The efficacy of psychodynamic therapies for depression remains open to debate because of a paucity of high-quality studies. The authors compared the efficacy of psychodynamic therapy with that of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), hypothesizing nonsignificant differences and the noninferiority of psychodynamic therapy relative to CBT. METHOD A(More)
BACKGROUND The relative efficacy of psychotherapy and combined therapy in the treatment of depression is still a matter of debate. AIMS To investigate whether combined therapy has advantages over psychotherapy alone. METHOD A 6-month randomised clinical trial compared Short Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy (n=106) with combined therapy (n=85) in(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of antidepressants with that of antidepressants plus psychotherapy ("combined therapy") in the treatment of depression. METHODS 6 month randomised clinical trial of antidepressants (N=84) and combined therapy (N=83) in ambulatory patients with Major Depression and a 17-item HDRS baseline score of at least 14 points. The(More)
BACKGROUND During the past decades personality pathology was considered to have a negative influence on the outcome of pharmacotherapy of depressive disorders. Recently, there has been a shift towards a less negative opinion. Still, the evidence in the literature remains inconclusive. This may be explained by methodological differences between published(More)
BACKGROUND A limited number of psychotherapy sessions in combination with medication is preferable to pharmacotherapy only in the treatment of ambulatory patients with major depression. Whether there is a relation between the number of sessions and the efficacy of the treatment is uncertain. METHOD Randomized clinical trial comparing two treatment(More)
Depressed patients randomized to psychotherapy were compared with those who had been chosen for psychotherapy in a treatment algorithm, including addition of an antidepressant in case of early nonresponse. There were no differences between randomized and by-preference patients at baseline in adherence and outcome. About half of the early nonresponders(More)
Personality disorders are much more common among depressive patients than among normal people. Until now, little research has been conducted into the prevalence of personality disorders among patients with both major depression and dysthymia (double depression). The subject of this study is whether depressive patients with dysthymia have more personality(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the efficacy and speed of action of short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy (SPSP) in comparison to pharmacotherapy (PhT) in the acute treatment of depression. METHOD This study reported on the first 8 weeks of a treatment algorithm for depression. 70 patients with a depressive episode according to DSM-IV were randomized to(More)
BACKGROUND Previous research has shown that Short Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy (SPSP) is an effective alternative to pharmacotherapy and combined treatment (SPSP and pharmacotherapy) in the treatment of depressed outpatients. The question remains, however, how Short Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy compares with other established(More)