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In The Computational Neurobiology of Reaching and Pointing, a unified and comprehensive synthesis of motor learning and control is presented. A quantitative approach is taken to explain computations which may be used to achieve motor tasks taking into account the constraints and limitations involved when biological systems interact with the physical world.(More)
Deep Brain Stimulation is an effective treatment of generalized dystonia. Optimal stimulation parameters vary between patients. This article investigates the influence of electrical brain impedance and delivered current on the brain response to stimulation. Twenty-four patients were bilaterally stimulated in the globus pallidus internus through two(More)
We have screened antibodies for immunocytochemical staining in the optic lobes of the brain of Drosophila melanogaster. Seven polyclonal antisera and five monoclonal antibodies are described that selectively and reproducibly stain individual cells and/or produce characteristic staining patterns in the neuropile. Such antisera are useful for the cellular(More)
OBJECT Primary generalized dystonia (PGD) is a medically refractory disease of the brain causing twisting or spasmodic movements and abnormal postures. In more than 30% of cases it is associated with the autosomal DYT1 mutation. Continuous electrical stimulation of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) has been used successfully in the treatment of PGD. The(More)
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) causes a progressive generalized dystonia which remains pharmacologically intractable. We performed bilateral internal globus pallidus stimulation in six patients with genetically confirmed PKAN who obtained a major and long-lasting improvement of their painful spasms, dystonia, and functional(More)
OBJECT Adjusting electrical parameters used in deep brain stimulation (DBS) for dystonia remains time consuming and is currently based on clinical observation alone. The goal of this study was to visualize electrical parameters around the electrode, to correlate these parameters with the anatomy of the globus pallidus internus (GPI), and to study the(More)
Stimulation electrodes are implanted under general anesthesia, without intra-operative electrophysiology or clinical testing, based only on stereotactic MRI and direct anatomical localization of the postero-ventro-basal GPi. We retrospectively analyzed the surgical procedure that has been designed and implemented in our center, using the Leksell G frame,(More)
OBJECT The parameter adjustment process during deep brain stimulation (DBS) for dystonia remains time consuming and based on clinical observation alone. The aim was to correlate the electric field with the GPi anatomy to be able to study the stimulated volume. METHODS We developed a computer-assisted method (model) for visualizing electric field in(More)
AIM Dystonia is a medically intractable condition causing twisting or myoclonic movements and abnormal postures. There is an important heterogeneity among etiologies of dystonia. The electrical stimulation of the globus pallidus has been used successfully in primary generalized dystonia. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term efficacy and safety(More)