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Salicylic acid (SA) is an important regulator of plant defense responses, and a variety of Arabidopsis mutants impaired in resistance against bacterial and fungal pathogens show defects in SA accumulation, perception, or signal transduction. Nevertheless, the role of SA-dependent defense responses against necrotrophic fungi is currently unclear. We(More)
Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant proteins that counteract fungal polygalacturonases, which are important virulence factors. Like many other plant defense proteins, PGIPs are encoded by gene families, but the roles of individual genes in these families are poorly understood. Here, we show that in Arabidopsis, two tandemly duplicated(More)
We carried out transcriptional profiling analysis in 10-d-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with oligogalacturonides (OGs), oligosaccharides derived from the plant cell wall, or the bacterial flagellin peptide Flg22, general elicitors of the basal defense response in plants. Although detected by different receptors, both OGs and Flg22 trigger a(More)
Five ethylene-insensitive loci (wei1-wei5) were identified by using a low-dose screen for "weak" ethylene-insensitive mutants. wei1, wei2, and wei3 seedlings showed hormone insensitivity only in roots, whereas wei4 and wei5 displayed insensitivity in both roots and hypocotyls. The genes corresponding to wei1, wei4, and wei5 were isolated using a positional(More)
Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are ubiquitous plant cell wall proteins that are directed against fungal polygalacturonases (PGs), which are important pathogenicity factors. The inhibiting activity of PGIPs directly reduces the aggressive potential of PGs. In addition, it causes PGs to form more long-chain oligogalacturonides that are able to(More)
Oligogalacturonides (OGs) released from plant cell walls by pathogen polygalacturonases induce a variety of host defense responses. Here we show that in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), OGs increase resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea independently of jasmonate (JA)-, salicylic acid (SA)-, and ethylene (ET)-mediated signaling.(More)
Polygalacturonases (PGs) hydrolyze the homogalacturonan of plant cell-wall pectin and are important virulence factors of several phytopathogenic fungi. In response to abiotic and biotic stress, plants accumulate PG-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) that reduce the activity of fungal PGs. In Arabidopsis thaliana, PGIPs with comparable activity against BcPG1, an(More)
Polygalacturonases (PGs), enzymes that hydrolyze the homogalacturonan of the plant cell wall, are virulence factors of several phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria. On the other hand, PGs may activate defense responses by releasing oligogalacturonides (OGs) perceived by the plant cell as host-associated molecular patterns. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and(More)
Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are oligomers of alpha-1,4-linked galacturonosyl residues released from plant cell walls upon partial degradation of homogalacturonan. OGs are able to elicit defense responses, including accumulation of reactive oxygen species and pathogenesis-related proteins, and protect plants against pathogen infections. Recent studies(More)
Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide, resulting in yield losses and mycotoxin contamination. The molecular mechanisms regulating Fusarium penetration and infection are poorly understood. Beside mycotoxin production, cell wall degradation may play a role in the development of(More)