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Rodent malaria species Plasmodium yoelii and P. chabaudi have been widely used to validate vaccine approaches targeting blood-stage merozoite antigens. However, increasing data suggest the P. berghei rodent malaria may be able to circumvent vaccine-induced anti-merozoite responses. Here we confirm a failure to protect against P. berghei, despite successful(More)
Protein-in-adjuvant formulations and viral-vectored vaccines encoding blood-stage malaria Ags have shown efficacy in rodent malaria models and in vitro assays against Plasmodium falciparum. Abs and CD4(+) T cell responses are associated with protective efficacy against blood-stage malaria, whereas CD8(+) T cells against some classical blood-stage Ags can(More)
The development of effective vaccines against difficult disease targets will require the identification of new subunit vaccination strategies that can induce and maintain effective immune responses in humans. Here we report on a phase 1a clinical trial using the AMA1 antigen from the blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite delivered either as(More)
Viral vectored vaccine delivery platforms have traditionally been used for the induction of cellular rather than humoral immunity. However, in recent years, recombinant adenoviral and poxviral vectored vaccines have been optimized to induce B-cell responses, resulting in the demonstration of high-titer antibody responses in a wide variety of animal species.(More)
BACKGROUND Circumsporozoite protein (CS) is the antigenic target for RTS,S, the most advanced malaria vaccine to date. Heterologous prime-boost with the viral vectors simian adenovirus 63 (ChAd63)-modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is the most potent inducer of T-cells in humans, demonstrating significant efficacy when expressing the preerythrocytic(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a threat to global health. While advances in diagnostics and treatment are crucial to the containment of the epidemic, it is likely that elimination of the disease can only be achieved through vaccination. Vaccine-induced protection from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent, at least in part, on a robust Th1 response, yet little(More)
The development of protective vaccines against many difficult infectious pathogens will necessitate the induction of effective antibody responses. Here we assess humoral immune responses against two antigens from the blood-stage merozoite of the Plasmodium falciparum human malaria parasite--MSP1 and AMA1. These antigens were delivered to healthy(More)
A central goal in vaccinology is the induction of high and sustained Ab responses. Protein-in-adjuvant formulations are commonly used to achieve such responses. However, their clinical development can be limited by the reactogenicity of some of the most potent preclinical adjuvants and the cost and complexity of licensing new adjuvants for human use. Also,(More)
Acquisition of non-sterilizing natural immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been shown in low transmission areas following multiple exposures. However, conflicting data from endemic areas suggest that the parasite may interfere with the induction of effective B-cell responses. To date, the impact of blood-stage parasite exposure on antigen-specific(More)
Subunit vaccination modalities tend to induce particular immune effector responses. Viral vectors are well known for their ability to induce strong T cell responses, while protein-adjuvant vaccines have been used primarily for induction of antibody responses. Here, we demonstrate in mice using a Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (PfMSP1)(More)