Simone C Naylor

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Nasal influenza vaccination may prove to be a good alternative to parenteral injection because of the enhancement of the mucosal immune response and the ease of vaccine administration. This study investigated the use of chitosan, a bioadhesive polymer, as a nasal delivery system with inactivated, subunit influenza vaccine. Subjects received nasally 15 or(More)
BACKGROUND Meningococcal disease occurs after colonization of the nasopharynx with Neisseria meningitidis. Surfactant protein (SP)-A and SP-D are pattern-recognition molecules of the respiratory tract that activate inflammatory and phagocytic defences after binding to microbial sugars. Variation in the genes of the surfactant proteins affects the expression(More)
BACKGROUND Diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of Neisseria meningitidis has enabled accurate quantification of the bacterial load in patients with meningococcal disease. METHODS Quantification of the N. meningitidis DNA level by real time-PCR was conducted on whole-blood samples obtained from patients presenting with meningococcal(More)
BACKGROUND Genetically determined variation in proinflammatory cytokine release influences severity of meningococcal disease and other serious infections. OBJECTIVE To ascertain the relative frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms within the interleukin-1 gene locus among patients who survived and those who died of meningococcal disease and a(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the promoter polymorphism tumor necrosis factor (TNF) (-308) is associated with susceptibility to or death from meningococcal sepsis. DESIGN, SETTING, PATIENTS, AND PARTICIPANTS: Association study involving 1321 patients with microbiologically proven invasive meningococcal disease presenting to hospitals throughout United(More)
Among 384 patients with confirmed meningococcal disease, the likelihood of detecting Neisseria meningitidis DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) increased with age, serogroup B infection, and prehospitalization antibiotic treatment. Plasma and CSF genomic bacterial loads of non-B N. meningitidis serogroups correlated significantly. Serogroup B-infected patients(More)
We conducted an audit looking at the management of HIV-positive women in the postpartum period. We found that of the women with a previous AIDS-defining condition or a CD4 count <350 cells/µL, 83% were correctly continued on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 84.1% of these had good virological control. ART was correctly stopped in 100% of women who had(More)
This study aimed to examine what specialist nursing contributes to HIV service delivery across England and how it could be optimised. A three part multi-method qualitative study was undertaken, involving (1) interviews with 19 stakeholders representing professional or service user groups; (2) interviews with nurse/physician pairs from 21 HIV services; and(More)
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