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Considerable evidence suggests that neuroadaptations leading to addiction involve the same glutamate-dependent cellular mechanisms that enable learning and memory. Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) have therefore become an important focus of addiction research. This article reviews: (1) basic mechanisms underlying LTP and LTD, (2)(More)
Trafficking of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptors is an important determinant of synaptic strength. Our prior work suggests that D1 dopamine (DA) receptors regulate AMPA receptor trafficking. This is a possible mechanism by which amphetamine and cocaine, which indirectly stimulate D1 receptors, may alter synaptic strength(More)
While dopamine (DA) receptors mediate acute effects of amphetamine and cocaine, chronic drug administration produces many glutamate-dependent adaptations, including LTP in reward-related neuronal circuits. An important question presents itself: How do DA receptors influence glutamate-dependent synaptic plasticity? Alterations in AMPA receptor(More)
Rats exposed to acute unavoidable stress develop a deficit in escaping avoidable aversive stimuli that lasts as long as unavoidable stress exposure is repeated. A 3-week exposure to unavoidable stress also reduces dopamine (DA) output in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS). This study showed that a 7-day exposure to unavoidable stress induced in rats an(More)
The stimulation of glutamate receptors plays a relevant role in the development of behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants, while less clear results have been obtained on their role in morphine sensitization. We addressed this issue by comparing the development of cocaine and morphine sensitization under a continuous s.c. infusion of the(More)
Chronic stress exposure consistently impairs the reactivity to aversive and pleasurable stimuli in rats; these behavioral modifications are associated with a decrease in dopamine output in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS). However, when rats that have already acquired an appetitive behavior are exposed to chronic stress, they develop an impaired(More)
In hippocampus and other regions, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptors are inserted into synapses during long-term potentiation and removed during long-term depression. However, little is known about regulation of AMPA receptor trafficking in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), despite growing evidence that glutamate-dependent(More)
UNLABELLED Streptolysin O is a potent pore-forming toxin produced by group A Streptococcus. The aims of the present study were to dissect the relative contributions of different structural domains of the protein to hemolytic activity, to obtain a detoxified form of streptolysin O amenable to human vaccine formulation, and to investigate the role of(More)
Current hemagglutinin (HA)-based seasonal influenza vaccines induce vaccine strain-specific neutralizing antibodies that usually fail to provide protection against mismatched circulating viruses. Inclusion in the vaccine of highly conserved internal proteins such as the nucleoprotein (NP) and the matrix protein 1 (M1) was shown previously to increase(More)
Morphine sensitized rats appear protected from the sequelae of an unavoidable stress: when exposed to stress (after a 7-day morphine wash-out) and then tested for escape, they perform like naive animals. This protection appears similar to that induced by chronic imipramine treatment, as it is antagonized by the inhibition of D(1)-dopamine receptors before(More)