Simona E. Carbone

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Damage to the enteric nervous system (ENS) associated with intestinal inflammation may underlie persistent alterations to gut functions, suggesting that enteric neurons are viable targets for novel therapies. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer therapeutic benefits for attenuation of neurodegenerative diseases by homing to areas of inflammation and(More)
BACKGROUND Patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy experience a multitude of gastrointestinal side-effects. However, the causes of these symptoms are uncertain and whether these therapeutics directly affect the enteric nervous system is unknown. Our aim was to determine whether the function and morphology of myenteric neurons are altered in specimens of(More)
There are differences in the structure and function between regions of the colon. In patients with slow transit constipation the activity of all regions is markedly slowed. Counts of colonic neurones in slow transit constipation have been semiquantitative and led to varying results. We have applied new methods of quantification of markers in whole mounts of(More)
Gap junction coupling and neuromuscular transmission to smooth muscle were studied in the first 4 h after preparations were set up in vitro. Intracellular recordings were made from smooth muscle cells of guinea pig ileum. Fast inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs) were small (1.3 ± 1.0 mV) in the first 30 min but increased significantly over the first 120(More)
BACKGROUND In animal models, enteric reflex pathways have potent effects on motor activity; their roles have been much less extensively studied in human gut. The aim of this study was to determine if ascending excitatory interneuronal pathways can modulate spontaneous phasic contractions in isolated preparations of human colonic circular muscle. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Oxaliplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic drug used as a first-line therapy for colorectal cancer. However, its use is associated with severe gastrointestinal side-effects resulting in dose limitations and/or cessation of treatment. In this study, we tested whether oxidative stress, caused by chronic oxaliplatin treatment,(More)
BACKGROUND Access to tissue, difficulties with dissection, and poor visibility of enteric ganglia have hampered electrophysiological recordings of human enteric neurons. Here, we report a method to combine intracellular recording with simultaneous morphological identification of neurons in the intact myenteric plexus of human colon ex vivo. METHODS(More)
The Winnie mouse, carrying a missense mutation in Muc2, is a model for chronic intestinal inflammation demonstrating symptoms closely resembling inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Alterations to the immune environment, morphological structure, and innervation of Winnie mouse colon have been identified; however, analyses of intestinal transit and colonic(More)
The μ-opioid receptor (MOR) is a major regulator of gastrointestinal motility and secretion and mediates opiate-induced bowel dysfunction. Although MOR is of physiological and therapeutic importance to gut function, the cellular and subcellular distribution and regulation of MOR within the enteric nervous system are largely undefined. Herein, we defined the(More)
Excitatory and inhibitory junction potentials of circular smooth muscle cells in guinea pig ileum and colon are suppressed 30-90 min after setting up in vitro preparations. We have previously shown this "unresponsive" period is associated with a transient loss of dye coupling between smooth muscle cells, which subsequently recovers over the ensuing 30-90(More)
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