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Fragile X (FRAX) syndrome is a common inherited form of mental retardation resulting from the lack of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) expression. The consequences of FMRP absence in the mechanism underlying mental retardation are unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that glutamate receptor (GluR) expression might be altered in FRAX syndrome.(More)
BACKGROUND Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic cause of intellectual disability and autism. Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1 KO) mice, an animal model of FXS, exhibit spatial memory impairment and synapse malfunctioning in the hippocampus, with abnormal enhancement of long-term depression mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR-LTD). The neurotransmitter(More)
Activation of group-I metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGlu1 and mGlu5, triggers a variety of signalling pathways in neurons and glial cells, which are differently implicated in synaptic plasticity. The earliest and much of key studies discovered abnormal mGlu5 receptor function in Fragile X syndrome (FXS) mouse models which then motivated more recent work(More)
The Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse is characterized by an increased audiogenic seizure (AGS) susceptibility and is considered a good animal model for epilepsy and seizures in the human fragile-X (FRAX) syndrome. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the reintroduction of the FMR1 gene is able to revert the AGS susceptibility characterizing Fmr1 KO mice. To this(More)
Fragile X syndrome is caused by the lack of expression of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein involved in mRNA transport and translation. FMRP is a component of mRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes and it can interact with a range of proteins either directly or indirectly, as demonstrated by two-hybrid selection and(More)
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and exerts its actions via a number of ionotropic glutamate receptors/channels and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors. In addition to being expressed in neurons, glutamate receptors are expressed in different types of glial cells including astrocytes,(More)
Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu1 and mGlu5) are coupled to polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis and are involved in activity-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity, both during development and in the adult life. Group I mGlu receptors can also regulate proliferation, differentiation, and survival of neural stem/progenitor cells, which further(More)
While FMR1 is silenced in Fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients carrying the full mutation, its expression is elevated (2-8 fold) in premutated individuals. These people may develop the Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), a late onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by ataxia and parkinsonism. In addition, people carrying the(More)
Background Notch signaling is deregulated in human gliomas and may play a role in their malignancy. However, the role of each Notch receptor in glioma cell differentiation and progression is not clear. We examined the expression pattern of Notch receptors and compared it with differentiation markers in glioma cell lines, primary human cultures, and biopsies(More)
The causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are mostly undefined; however, excitotoxic injury and astrogliosis may contribute to motor neuron (MN) degeneration. Group I metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are over-expressed in reactive astrocytes in ALS, but the functional significance of this over-expression is presently unknown. We examined the(More)