Simon Thomas Schaefer

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BACKGROUND Because the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) coupled pathway is believed to amplify inflammation prevailing in sepsis, the authors tested the hypotheses that the insertion-deletion polymorphism (-94ins/delATTG) (1) alters nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB and activator protein-1 (NF-κB1) in monocytes after lipopolysaccharide stimulation; (2)(More)
AIMS Angiogenesis is compromised under conditions of hypercholesterolaemia. Since disturbed angiogenesis predisposes to ischaemic injuries, efforts have been made to promote angiogenesis by delivery of growth factors. How stromal cell-derived growth factor (SDF)-1 influences angiogenesis under conditions reflecting hypercholesterolaemia was unknown. (More)
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 13 and TLR2 are the major sensors of Gram-positive bacteria in mice. TLR13 recognizes Sa19, a specific 23S ribosomal (r) RNA-derived fragment and bacterial modification of Sa19 ablates binding to TLR13, and to antibiotics such as erythromycin. Similarly, RNase A-treated Staphylococcus aureus activate human peripheral blood(More)
BACKGROUND Anemia is common in patients with sepsis but its mechanism is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that effects on erythropoiesis evoked by darbepoetin alfa (DA), a long-acting erythropoietin analog, are diminished by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). METHODS We performed a prospective, controlled, randomized animal study (male Lewis rats n = 44). The(More)
Considerable efforts have been made to amplify angiogenesis under conditions of hypoxia and ischemia by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) delivery, so far with limited success. Ischemic vascular diseases are often associated with hypercholesterolemia. To elucidate whether the exposure to blood lipids influences VEGF responses of microvessels, we(More)
BACKGROUND Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a molecular key player in response to hypoxemic/inflammatory conditions prevailing in sepsis. In a prospective observational study, we tested the hypotheses that sepsis affects HIF-1α messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression (primary hypothesis) and also (secondary hypotheses) the expression of the HIF-1α(More)
BACKGROUND Previous investigations and meta-analyses on the effect of glucocorticoids on mortality in septic shock revealed mixed results. This heterogeneity might be evoked by genetic variations. Such candidate is a promoter polymorphism (-94ins/delATTG) of the gene encoding the ubiquitous transcription-factor nuclear-factor-κB (NF-κB) which binds to(More)
Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) and AQP5 expression may impact on key mechanisms in sepsis. However, it is unclear whether these AQPs are expressed to an equal extent or regulated differentially. Accordingly, we investigated the time-dependent expression of AQP1 and AQP5 following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cultured human THP-1 cells and in the lungs(More)
BACKGROUND Critically ill patients are at high risk to suffer from sepsis, even in the absence of an initial infectious source, but the molecular mechanisms for their increased sepsis susceptibility, including a suppressed immune system, remain unclear. Although microbes and pathogen-associated molecular pattern are accepted inducers of sepsis and septic(More)