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The accumulation of smooth muscle and endothelial cells is essential for remodeling and repair of injured blood vessel walls. Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells have been implicated in vascular repair and remodeling; however, the mechanisms underlying their recruitment to the site of injury remain elusive. Here, using real-time in vivo fluorescence(More)
Internal pilot studies are a popular design feature to address uncertainties in the sample size calculations caused by vague information on nuisance parameters. Despite their popularity, only very recently blinded sample size reestimation procedures for trials with count data were proposed and their properties systematically investigated. Although blinded(More)
Counts of events are increasingly common as primary endpoints in randomized clinical trials. With between-patient heterogeneity leading to variances in excess of the mean (referred to as overdispersion), statistical models reflecting this heterogeneity by mixtures of Poisson distributions are frequently employed. Sample size calculation in the planning of(More)
Systolic blood pressure (SBP) increases steadily with age and bears an independent continuous relationship with the incidence of cardiovascular events. Low-grade inflammation is a suspected pathomechanism causing vascular aging and promote coronary artery disease (CAD). Recent animal studies give evidence that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) modulate(More)
Viewed under UV light the diverse and exceptionally well-preserved molluscs from the Late Jurassic Cordebugle Konservat Lagerstätte (Calvados, Normandy, France) reveal fluorescent fossil shell colour patterns predating the oldest previously known instance of such patterns by 100 Myr. Evidently, residual colour patterns are observable in Mesozoic molluscs by(More)
Type II germ cell cancers (GCC) can be subdivided into seminomas and non-seminomas. Seminomas are similar to carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells, the common precursor of type II GCCs, with regard to epigenetics and expression, while embryonal carcinomas (EC) are totipotent and differentiate into teratomas, yolk-sac tumors and choriocarcinomas. GCCs can present as(More)
Nanocomposite materials represent a success story of nanotechnology. However, development of nanomaterial fabrication still suffers from the lack of adequate analysis tools. In particular, achieving and maintaining well-dispersed particle distributions is a key challenge, both in material development and industrial production. Conventional methods like(More)
Obesity is strongly associated with hypertension. Despite numerous mechanistic links the association is not fully understood. Western diet increases uptake of Toll-Like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligands such as free fatty acids or endotoxin. We recently demonstrated that TLR4 ligands are involved in the development of hypertension. We hypothesized that TLR4 ligands(More)
BACKGROUND Effective and safe management of oral anticoagulant treatment (OAT) requires a high level of patient knowledge and adherence. The aim of this study was to assess patient knowledge about OAT and factors associated with patient knowledge. METHODS This is a baseline survey of a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 22 general practices with an(More)