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BACKGROUND Sample size calculation is a key aspect in the planning of any trial. Planning a randomized placebo-controlled trial in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) requires knowledge of the annualized relapse rate (ARR) in the placebo group. OBJECTIVES This paper aims (i) to characterize the uncertainty in ARR by conducting a systematic(More)
The gene for autosomal dominant "benign" familial neonatal convulsions, a transient, primary epilepsy of infancy, has recently been assigned to chromosome 20q. To determine whether this disorder is genetically heterogeneous, we performed linkage analysis in two previously unreported pedigrees with benign familial neonatal convulsions in which clinical(More)
Meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Escherichia coli are associated with high rates of mortality and neurological sequelae. A high prevalence of neurological disorders has been observed in geriatric populations at risk of hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D has potent effects on human immunity, including induction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and(More)
Cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas are currently in use in medicine as surgical tools and are being evaluated for new applications, including wound treatment and cosmetic care. The disinfecting properties of plasmas are of particular interest, given the threat of antibiotic resistance to modern medicine. Plasma effluents comprise (V)UV photons and various(More)
PURPOSE Evaluation of a new cardiac MDCT protocol using a split-bolus contrast injection protocol and single MDCT scan for reliable diagnosis of LA/LAA thrombi in comparison to TEE, optimizing radiation exposure and use of contrast agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 182 consecutive patients with drug refractory AF scheduled for PVI (62.6 % male, mean(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The clinical efficacy of filter devices in internal carotid artery (ICA) stent placement has been a matter of controversy. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the number and extent of cerebral emboli, as represented by new lesions on diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI), in patients treated with filter-protected carotid(More)
Vertebrate life critically depends on renal filtration and excretion of low molecular weight waste products. This process is controlled by a specialized cell-cell contact between podocyte foot processes: the slit diaphragm (SD). Using a comprehensive set of targeted KO mice of key SD molecules, we provided genetic, functional, and high-resolution(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have shown a decrease in annualised relapse rates (ARRs) in placebo groups of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS). METHODS We conducted a systematic literature search of RCTs in RMS. Data on eligibility criteria and baseline characteristics were extracted and tested for significant trends(More)
We report the case of a 13-year-old boy with disabling chorea due to moyamoya disease. His chorea seemed to improve with steroid therapy. We conclude that steroid therapy may ameliorate moyamoya-associated chorea, and perioperative steroids can confound neurosurgical outcome. We are unable to assess the effect of cerebrovascular bypass procedures on the(More)
The use of an internal pilot study for blinded sample size re-estimation (BSSR) allows to reduce uncertainty on the appropriate sample size compared with conventional fixed sample size designs. Recently BSSR procedures for recurrent event data were proposed and investigated. These approaches assume treatment-specific constant event rates that might not(More)