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Engineered nucleases can be used to induce site-specific double-strand breaks (DSBs) in plant genomes. Thus, homologous recombination (HR) can be enhanced and targeted mutagenesis can be achieved by error-prone non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). Recently, the bacterial CRISPR/Cas9 system was used for DSB induction in plants to promote HR and NHEJ. Cas9 can(More)
The application of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas system of Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) is currently revolutionizing genome engineering in plants. However, synthetic plant biology will require more complex manipulations of genomes and transcriptomes. The simultaneous addressing of different specific genomic(More)
The precise manipulation of plant genomes relies on the induction of DNA double-strand breaks by site-specific nucleases to initiate DNA repair reactions that are either based on non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). Recently, the CRISPR/Cas system emerged as the most important tool for genome engineering due to its simple(More)
This review summarises the recent progress in DSB-induced gene targeting by homologous recombination in plants. We are getting closer to efficiently inserting genes or precisely exchanging single amino acids. Although the basic features of double-strand break (DSB)-induced genome engineering were established more than 20 years ago, only in recent years has(More)
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