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Many phenotypic traits show plasticity but behaviour is often considered the 'most plastic' aspect of phenotype as it is likely to show the quickest response to temporal changes in conditions or 'situation'. However, it has also been noted that constraints on sensory acuity, cognitive structure and physiological capacities place limits on behavioural(More)
Trait compensation occurs when mechanically independent adaptations are negatively correlated. Here, we report the first study to demonstrate trait compensation in predator-defence adaptations across several species. Freshwater pulmonate snails exposed experimentally to predation chemical cues from fishes and crushed conspecifics showed clear interspecific(More)
Responses of freshwater organisms to environmental oxygen tensions (PO(2)) have focused on adult (i.e. late developmental) stages, yet responses of embryonic stages to changes in environmental PO(2) must also have implications for organismal biology. Here we assess how the rotational behaviour of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis changes during(More)
Inducible defences are adaptive phenotypes that arise in response to predation threats. Such plasticity incurs costs to individuals, but there has been little interest in how such induced traits in animals may be constrained by environmental factors. Here, we demonstrate that calcium availability interacts with predation cues to modify snail shell growth(More)
Interspecific recognition of alarm cues among guild members through "eavesdropping" may allow prey to fine-tune antipredator responses. This process may be linked to taxonomic relatedness but might also be influenced by local adaptation to recognize alarm cues from sympatric species. We tested this hypothesis using antipredator responses of a freshwater(More)
1. Dispersal is a crucial process in maintaining population structures in many organisms, and is hypothesized as a process underlying the interspecific relationship between abundance and distribution. Here we examined whether there was a link between the dispersal and developmental modes of marine macroinvertebrates and the slopes and elevations of(More)
Heterochrony, altered developmental timing between ancestors and their descendents, has been proposed as a pervasive evolutionary feature and recent analytical approaches have confirmed its existence as an evolutionary pattern. Yet, the mechanistic basis for heterochrony remains unclear and, in particular, whether intraspecific variation in the timing of(More)
Freshwater snails and anuran tadpoles have been suggested to have their highest population densities in ponds of intermediate size where abiotic disturbance (e.g. desiccation) is low and large predators absent. Both snails and tadpoles feed on periphytic algae and, thus, there should be a large potential for competitive interactions to occur between these(More)
Numerous studies indicate that the behavioral responses of prey to the presence of predators can have an important role in structuring assemblages through trait-mediated indirect interactions. Few studies, however, have addressed how relative susceptibility to predation influences such interactions. Here we examine the effect of chemical cues from the(More)
Adopting an integrative approach to the study of sequence heterochrony, we compared the timing of developmental events encompassing a mixture of developmental stages and functional traits in the embryos of 12 species of basommatophoran snails in an explicit phylogenetic framework. PARSIMOV analysis demonstrated clear functional heterochronies associated(More)