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Trait compensation occurs when mechanically independent adaptations are negatively correlated. Here, we report the first study to demonstrate trait compensation in predator-defence adaptations across several species. Freshwater pulmonate snails exposed experimentally to predation chemical cues from fishes and crushed conspecifics showed clear interspecific(More)
Freshwater snails and anuran tadpoles have been suggested to have their highest population densities in ponds of intermediate size where abiotic disturbance (e.g. desiccation) is low and large predators absent. Both snails and tadpoles feed on periphytic algae and, thus, there should be a large potential for competitive interactions to occur between these(More)
Carbon dioxide-induced ocean acidification is predicted to have major implications for marine life, but the research focus to date has been on direct effects. We demonstrate that acidified seawater can have indirect biological effects by disrupting the capability of organisms to express induced defences, hence, increasing their vulnerability to predation.(More)
Many phenotypic traits show plasticity but behaviour is often considered the 'most plastic' aspect of phenotype as it is likely to show the quickest response to temporal changes in conditions or 'situation'. However, it has also been noted that constraints on sensory acuity, cognitive structure and physiological capacities place limits on behavioural(More)
In the future, marine organisms will face the challenge of coping with multiple environmental changes associated with increased levels of atmospheric Pco(2), such as ocean warming and acidification. To predict how organisms may or may not meet these challenges, an in-depth understanding of the physiological and biochemical mechanisms underpinning organismal(More)
The boundary between freshwater and estuarine ecosystems at the extreme head of estuaries has received little attention from benthic ecologists. This short communication addresses this research caveat, presenting preliminary data on the spatial and temporal (seasonal) variation in the composition of benthic macroinvertebrate communities across the(More)
The investigation of the altered timing of developmental events is key to understanding evolution. Most empirical investigations of event timing are biased towards studying morphological variation. Recent reviews, however, have attempted to marshal the evidence for the importance of altered timing of physiological events, focusing on such timing shifts(More)
We investigated the effect of CO(2) acidified sea water (S=35, 22 and 10(PSU)) on embryonic development of the intertidal amphipod Echinogammarus marinus (Leach). Low pH, but not low salinity (22(PSU)), resulted in a more protracted embryonic development in situ although the effect was only evident at low salinity. However reduced salinity, not pH, exerted(More)
Population genetic structure of the circum-Mediterranean caddisfly Mesophylax aspersus (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae) on the Canary Islands was investigated by studying allozyme variation at nine putative loci in five populations. Genetic variability, population structure and gene flow were compared with data in the literature for continental taxa to assess(More)
Responses of freshwater organisms to environmental oxygen tensions (PO(2)) have focused on adult (i.e. late developmental) stages, yet responses of embryonic stages to changes in environmental PO(2) must also have implications for organismal biology. Here we assess how the rotational behaviour of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis changes during(More)