Simon Rundle

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Trait compensation occurs when mechanically independent adaptations are negatively correlated. Here, we report the first study to demonstrate trait compensation in predator-defence adaptations across several species. Freshwater pulmonate snails exposed experimentally to predation chemical cues from fishes and crushed conspecifics showed clear interspecific(More)
Many phenotypic traits show plasticity but behaviour is often considered the 'most plastic' aspect of phenotype as it is likely to show the quickest response to temporal changes in conditions or 'situation'. However, it has also been noted that constraints on sensory acuity, cognitive structure and physiological capacities place limits on behavioural(More)
Freshwater snails and anuran tadpoles have been suggested to have their highest population densities in ponds of intermediate size where abiotic disturbance (e.g. desiccation) is low and large predators absent. Both snails and tadpoles feed on periphytic algae and, thus, there should be a large potential for competitive interactions to occur between these(More)
Our understanding of the effects of ocean acidification on whole organism function is growing, but most current information is for adult stages of development. Here, we show the effects of reduced pH seawater (pH 7.6) on aspects of the development, physiology and behaviour of encapsulated embryos of the marine intertidal gastropod Littorina obtusata. We(More)
In the future, marine organisms will face the challenge of coping with multiple environmental changes associated with increased levels of atmospheric Pco(2), such as ocean warming and acidification. To predict how organisms may or may not meet these challenges, an in-depth understanding of the physiological and biochemical mechanisms underpinning organismal(More)
Inducible defences are adaptive phenotypes that arise in response to predation threats. Such plasticity incurs costs to individuals, but there has been little interest in how such induced traits in animals may be constrained by environmental factors. Here, we demonstrate that calcium availability interacts with predation cues to modify snail shell growth(More)
We investigated the effect of CO(2) acidified sea water (S=35, 22 and 10(PSU)) on embryonic development of the intertidal amphipod Echinogammarus marinus (Leach). Low pH, but not low salinity (22(PSU)), resulted in a more protracted embryonic development in situ although the effect was only evident at low salinity. However reduced salinity, not pH, exerted(More)
The study of developmental sequences of physiological traits could be an important way of placing comparative developmental physiology (CDP) within the research agenda being forged by work on developmental plasticity. Here we focus on the concept of heterokairy defined by Spicer & Burggren in 2003 as changes in the timing of physiological development in an(More)
Carbon dioxide-induced ocean acidification is predicted to have major implications for marine life, but the research focus to date has been on direct effects. We demonstrate that acidified seawater can have indirect biological effects by disrupting the capability of organisms to express induced defences, hence, increasing their vulnerability to predation.(More)
Interspecific recognition of alarm cues among guild members through "eavesdropping" may allow prey to fine-tune antipredator responses. This process may be linked to taxonomic relatedness but might also be influenced by local adaptation to recognize alarm cues from sympatric species. We tested this hypothesis using antipredator responses of a freshwater(More)