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The paramyxovirus Sendai (SV), is a well-established inducer of IFN-alphabeta gene expression. In this study we show that SV induces IFN-alphabeta gene expression normally in cells from mice with targeted deletions of the Toll-IL-1 resistance domain containing adapters MyD88, Mal, Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF), and(More)
Genetic and epigenetic plasticity allows tumors to evade single-targeted treatments. Here we direct Bcl2-specific short interfering RNA (siRNA) with 5'-triphosphate ends (3p-siRNA) against melanoma. Recognition of 5'-triphosphate by the cytosolic antiviral helicase retinoic acid-induced protein I (Rig-I, encoded by Ddx58) activated innate immune cells such(More)
RIG-I and MDA5 sense cytoplasmic viral RNA and set-off a signal transduction cascade, leading to antiviral innate immune response. The third RIG-I-like receptor, LGP2, differentially regulates RIG-I- and MDA5-dependent RNA sensing in an unknown manner. All three receptors possess a C-terminal regulatory domain (RD), which in the case of RIG-I senses the(More)
It is widely believed that generation of mature dendritic cells (DCs) with full T cell stimulatory capacity from human monocytes in vitro requires 5-7 days of differentiation with GM-CSF and IL-4, followed by 2-3 days of activation. Here, we report a new strategy for differentiation and maturation of monocyte-derived DCs within only 48 h of in vitro(More)
Detection of non-self RNA by TLRs within endosomes and by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like helicases in the cytosol is central to mammalian antiviral immunity. In this study, we used pathway-specific agonists and targeted delivery to address RNA immunorecognition in primary human immune cells. Within PBMC, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and(More)
It has been reported that interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) enhances humoral immunity and that dendritic cells of the myeloid lineage promote B-cell differentiation. Here we studied whether the plasmacytoid dendritic cell (PDC), a subset of dendritic cells specialized for the production of IFN-alpha, is involved in regulating B-cell differentiation and(More)
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) represent a highly specialized immune cell subset that produces large quantities of the anti-viral cytokines type I interferons (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) upon viral infection. PDC employ a member of the family of toll-like receptors, TLR9, to detect CpG motifs (unmethylated CG dinucleotides in certain base context) present(More)
The immune system of vertebrates is able to detect bacterial DNA based on the presence of unmethylated CpG motifs. We examined the therapeutic potential of oligodeoxynucleotides with CpG motifs (CpG ODN) in a colon carcinoma model in BALB/c mice. Tumors were induced by s.c. injection of syngeneic C26 cells or Renca kidney cancer cells as a control.(More)
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) are potent regulators of immune function and the major source of type I interferon (IFN) following viral infection. PDCs are found at sites of inflammation in allergic reactions, autoimmune disorders, and cancer, but the mechanisms leading to the recruitment of PDCs to these sites remain elusive. During inflammation,(More)
Human B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells recognize CpG motifs within microbial DNA via Toll-like receptor 9. Two functionally distinct types of CpG motif containing oligonucleotides (CpG ODN) have been described, CpG-A and CpG-B. In contrast to CpG-B, CpG-A induces high amounts of type I IFN (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) in plasmacytoid dendritic cells. In(More)