Simon Rothenfusser

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The Toll-like receptor (TLR)9 is critical for the recognition of immunostimulatory CpG motifs but may cooperate with other TLRs. We analyzed TLR1-10 mRNA expression by using quantitative real-time PCR in highly purified subsets of human PBMC and determined the sensitivity of these subsets to CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN). TLR1 and TLR6 were expressed in(More)
The immature plasmacytoid dendritic cell (PDC) is identical with the principal type I IFN-producing cell upon viral infection. Oligodeoxynucleotides which contain unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG ODN) are recognized by the vertebrate immune system. Previously, we described CpG ODN that strongly activate human B cells and human blood dendritic cells. Here we(More)
Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DC) (PDC, CD123+) and myeloid DC (MDC, CD11c+) may be able to discriminate between distinct classes of microbial molecules based on a different pattern of Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression. TLR1-TLR9 were examined in purified PDC and MDC. TLR9, which is critically involved in the recognition of CpG motifs in mice, was(More)
The paramyxovirus Sendai (SV), is a well-established inducer of IFN-alphabeta gene expression. In this study we show that SV induces IFN-alphabeta gene expression normally in cells from mice with targeted deletions of the Toll-IL-1 resistance domain containing adapters MyD88, Mal, Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF), and(More)
Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) is a potent proinflammatory factor during viral infection. Its production is tightly controlled by transcription of Il1b dependent on the transcription factor NF-kappaB and subsequent processing of pro-IL-1 beta by an inflammasome. However, the sensors and mechanisms that facilitate RNA virus-induced production of IL-1 beta(More)
The retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated antigen 5 (MDA-5) helicases sense viral RNA in infected cells and initiate antiviral responses such as the production of type I IFNs. Here we have shown that RIG-I and MDA-5 also initiate a proapoptotic signaling pathway that is independent of type I IFNs. In human melanoma(More)
The vertebrate immune system has established TLR9 to detect microbial DNA based on unmethylated CG dinucleotides within certain sequence contexts (CpG motifs). In humans, the expression of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is restricted to B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC). The PDC is characterized by the ability to rapidly synthesize large amounts(More)
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells sense viral ssRNA or its degradation products via TLR7/8 and CpG motifs within viral DNA via TLR9. Although these two endosomal pathways operate independently of viral replication, little is known about the detection of actively replicating viruses in plasmacytoid dendritic cell (PDC). Replication and transcription of the viral(More)
The ATPase retinoid acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I senses viral RNA in the cytoplasm of infected cells and subsequently activates cellular antiviral defense mechanisms. RIG-I recognizes molecular structures that discriminate viral from host RNA. Here, we show that RIG-I ligands require base-paired structures in conjunction with a free 5'-triphosphate to(More)
It has been reported that interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) enhances humoral immunity and that dendritic cells of the myeloid lineage promote B-cell differentiation. Here we studied whether the plasmacytoid dendritic cell (PDC), a subset of dendritic cells specialized for the production of IFN-alpha, is involved in regulating B-cell differentiation and(More)