Simon Rock Levinson

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Voltage-gated sodium channels perform critical roles for electrical signaling in the nervous system by generating action potentials in axons and in dendrites. At least 10 genes encode sodium channels in mammals, but specific physiological roles that distinguish each of these isoforms are not known. One possibility is that each isoform is expressed in a(More)
Na(+) channel clustering at nodes of Ranvier in the developing rat optic nerve was analyzed to determine mechanisms of localization, including the possible requirement for glial contact in vivo. Immunofluorescence labeling for myelin-associated glycoprotein and for the protein Caspr, a component of axoglial junctions, indicated that oligodendrocytes were(More)
Immunocytochemical and electrophysiological techniques were used to localize TTX-sensitive sodium channels (NaChs) over the soma-dendritic axis of basilar and nonbasilar pyramidal cells of the electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL) of weakly electric fish (Apteronotus leptorhynchus). Dense NaCh-like immunolabel was detected on the membranes of basilar and(More)
The K+ channel alpha-subunits Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 and the cytoplasmic beta-subunit Kvbeta2 were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and found to be colocalized at juxtaparanodes in normal adult rat sciatic nerve. After demyelination by intraneural injection of lysolecithin, and during remyelination, the subcellular distributions of Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and(More)
The node of Ranvier is a distinct domain of myelinated axons that is highly enriched in sodium channels and is critical for impulse propagation. During development, the channel subtypes expressed at the node undergo a transition from Nav1.2 to Nav1.6. Specialized junctions that form between the paranodal glial membranes and axon flank the nodes and are(More)
Na+ channel recovery from inactivation limits the maximal rate of neuronal firing. However, the properties of presynaptic Na+ channels are not well established because of the small size of most CNS boutons. Here we study the Na+ currents of the rat calyx of Held terminal and compare them with those of postsynaptic cells. We find that presynaptic Na+(More)
Polyclonal antibodies were raised against a well conserved region of the vertebrate Na+ channel and were affinity purified for use in immunocytochemistry. Focal demyelination of rat sciatic axons was initiated by an intraneural injection of lysolecithin and Na+ channel clustering was followed at several stages of myelin removal and repair. At 1 week(More)
Tenascin-R (TN-R), an extracellular matrix glycoprotein of the CNS, localizes to nodes of Ranvier and perineuronal nets and interacts in vitro with other extracellular matrix components and recognition molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily. To characterize the functional roles of TN-R in vivo, we have generated mice deficient for TN-R by homologous(More)
Voltage-dependent sodium channels cluster at high density at axon initial segments, where propagating action potentials are thought to arise, and at nodes of Ranvier. Here, we show that the sodium channel Na(v)1.6 is precisely localized at initial segments of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), whereas a different isoform, Na(v)1.2, is found in the neighboring(More)
Membrane excitability in different tissues is due, in large part, to the selective expression of distinct genes encoding the voltage-dependent sodium channel. Although the predominant sodium channels in brain, skeletal muscle, and cardiac muscle have been identified, the major sodium channel types responsible for excitability within the peripheral nervous(More)