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We have identified a rat cDNA encoding MRF4, a new member of the muscle regulatory factor gene family that includes MyoD1, myogenin, and Myf-5. MRF4 encodes a predicted 27-kD protein that contains a conserved helix-loop-helix motif, which is a common feature of this gene family. Northern analyses indicate that MRF4 is expressed solely in skeletal muscle(More)
The muscle regulatory factors MRF4, myogenin, myf-5, and MyoD constitute a family of proteins that can function as muscle-specific transcriptional activators. Although this gene family has been extensively studied, a specific role for each factor during myogenesis remains to be determined. Understanding how these factors function requires a detailed(More)
A small genetic region near the telomere of ovine chromosome 18 was previously shown to carry the mutation causing the callipyge muscle hypertrophy phenotype in sheep. Expression of this phenotype is the only known case in mammals of paternal polar overdominance gene action. A region surrounding two positional candidate genes was sequenced in animals of(More)
In this report, we demonstrate that myogenic cultures inhibited from differentiating by treatment with fibroblast growth factor or transforming growth factor beta show reduced levels of MyoD1 mRNA. Although this repression may contribute to the inhibition of myogenesis by growth factors, additional regulatory pathways must be affected, since inhibition(More)
A unique pattern of expression of the four muscle regulatory factor (MRF) proteins was found to distinguish early somitic from embryonic, fetal and newborn limb myogenic cells in vitro. Expression of the myosin heavy chain (MHC), MyoD, myogenin, Myf-5, and MRF4 proteins was examined by immunocytochemistry in cultures of four distinct types of mouse myogenic(More)
A screen designed to identify proteins that specifically bind to retinoic acid response elements resulted in the identification of a rat cDNA encoding a novel protein containing six Cys-Cys, His-Cys zinc fingers. This gene is expressed in a restricted fashion exhibiting distinct temporal and spatial patterns in the developing nervous system, primarily(More)
Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable(More)
The human and mouse genomes each contain at least 12 genes encoding LIM homeodomain (LIM-HD) transcription factors. These gene regulatory proteins feature two LIM domains in their amino termini and a characteristic DNA binding homeodomain. Studies of mouse models and human patients have established that the LIM-HD factors are critical for the development of(More)
A6 model renal epithelial cells were stably transfected with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged alpha- or beta-subunits of the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC). Transfected RNA and proteins were both expressed in low abundance, similar to the endogenous levels of ENaC in native cells. In living cells, laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed(More)
Prophet of Pit-1 (PROP1) is a homeodomain transcription factor essential for development of the mammalian anterior pituitary gland. Studies of human patients and animal models with mutations in their Prop1 genes have established that PROP1 is required for the correct development or sustained function of the hormone-secreting cells that regulate(More)