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Forward genetic screens have led to the isolation of several genes involved in secondary cell wall formation. A variety of evidence, however, suggests that the list of genes identified is not exhaustive. To address this problem, microarray data have been generated from tissue undergoing secondary cell wall formation and used to identify genes that exhibit a(More)
The irregular xylem3 (irx3) mutant of Arabidopsis has a severe deficiency in secondary cell wall cellulose deposition that leads to collapsed xylem cells. The irx3 mutation has been mapped to the top arm of chromosome V near the marker nga106. Expressed sequence tag clone 75G11, which exhibits sequence similarity to cellulose synthase, was found to be(More)
The cortical microtubule (MT) array and its organization is important in defining the growth axes of plant cells. In roots, the MT array exhibits a net-like configuration in the division zone, and a densely-packed transverse alignment in the elongation zone. This transition is essential for anisotropic cell expansion and consequently has been the subject of(More)
Changes in iron supply to oceanic plankton are thought to have a significant effect on concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide by altering rates of carbon sequestration, a theory known as the 'iron hypothesis'. For this reason, it is important to understand the response of pelagic biota to increased iron supply. Here we report the results of a(More)
All plant tissue is ultimately derived from the meristems, and the molecular mechanisms that control growth of apical meristems have been widely studied (reviewed in). In contrast, much less attention has been paid to vascular meristems, such as the cambium and procambium, even though these meristems are the source of woody tissue and therefore generate the(More)
The irregular xylem 1 (irx1) mutant of Arabidopsis has a severe deficiency in the deposition of cellulose in secondary cell walls, which results in collapsed xylem cells. This mutation has been mapped to a 140-kb region of chromosome 4. A cellulose synthase catalytic subunit was found to be located in this region, and genomic clones containing this gene(More)
Previous studies using co-expression analysis have identified a large number of genes likely to be involved in secondary cell-wall formation. However, the function of very few of these genes is known. We have studied the cell-wall phenotype of irx7, irx8 and irx9, three previously described irregular xylem (irx) mutants, and irx14 and parvus-3, which we now(More)
Cellulose synthesis in the developing xylem vessels of Arabidopsis requires three members of the cellulose synthase (CesA) gene family. In young vessels, these three proteins localize within the cell, whereas in older vessels, all three CesA proteins colocalize with bands of cortical microtubules that mark the sites of secondary cell wall deposition. In the(More)
Since the mid-1980s, our understanding of nutrient limitation of oceanic primary production has radically changed. Mesoscale iron addition experiments (FeAXs) have unequivocally shown that iron supply limits production in one-third of the world ocean, where surface macronutrient concentrations are perennially high. The findings of these 12 FeAXs also reveal(More)