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Movements by a standing person are commonly associated with adjustments in the activity of postural muscles to cause a desired shift of the center of pressure (COP) and keep balance. We hypothesize that such COP shifts are controlled (stabilized) using a small set of central variables (muscle modes, M-modes), while each M-mode induces changes in the(More)
We describe a model of feed-forward control of a redundant motor system and validate it using, as examples, tasks of multi-finger force production. The model assumes the existence of two input signals at an upper level of the control hierarchy, related and unrelated to a task variable. Knowledge of the Jacobian of the system is assumed at the level of(More)
We tested a hypothesis that force production by multi-finger groups leads to lower indices of force variability as compared to similar single-finger tasks. Three experiments were performed with quick force production, steady-state force production under visual feedback, and steady-state force production without visual feedback. In all experiments, a range(More)
The purpose of the study was to develop a model of force variability for a fast action performed by a multi-effector system and to verify it for multi-finger quick force production. The experiments involved quick isometric contractions to different target force levels using different finger combinations. Force variance calculated over sets of trials for a(More)
There is a no unique relationship between the trajectory of the hand, represented in cartesian or extrinsic space, and its trajectory in joint angle or intrinsic space in the general condition of joint redundancy. The goal of this work is to analyze the relation between planning the trajectory of a multijoint movement in these two coordinate systems. We(More)
Experiments with force production by subsets of fingers within the human hand have shown that finger interaction may be significantly nonlinear. In particular, this nonlinearity is reflected in the phenomenon of force deficit, a drop of the peak force of a finger when several fingers act simultaneously. We describe nonlinear effects in force relations(More)
The purpose of this work has been to develop a model of electromyographic (EMG) patterns during single-joint movements based on a version of the equilibrium-point hypothesis, a method for experimental reconstruction of the joint compliant characteristics, the dual-strategy hypothesis, and a kinematic model of movement trajectory. EMG patterns are considered(More)
The authors examined the kinematic qualities of the aiming trajectory as related to expertise. In all, 2 phases of the trajectory were discriminated. The first phase was regular approximation to the target accompanied by substantial fluctuations obeying the Weber-Fechner law. During the first phase, shooters did not initiate the triggering despite any(More)
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